Allaah Almighty Says (what means): “Indeed, the number of months with Allaah is twelve (lunar) months in the register of Allaah (from) the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion (i.e. way), so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allaah is with the righteous (who fear Him)” [Quran 9: 36]
It is with the wisdom of Allaah that He favored some months over others, like favoring the month of Ramadan over all other months, because it is the month of mercy, the month of Quran, the month of forgiveness and freeing of people from the Fire. It is a month which people glorified during the pre-Islamic period as well, and after Islam it became even more glorified.
Moreover, the month of Muharram (which means forbidden in Arabic) was called that because the Arabs used to forbid fighting during it. Safar (which means zero in Arabic) was given this name because the Arabs used to loot all the property of the enemy after defeating them in battle (i.e. they left nothing behind). Rabee’ Al-Awwal (which means graze in Arabic) because they used to graze their cattle during this month. Jumaadaa (which means solid in Arabic) was given this name because water used to freeze during this month. Rajab (which means remove in Arabic) was given this name because the Arabs used to remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting. Sha’baan (which is anything positioned between two things in Arabic) was given this name because it comes between Ramadan and Rajab. Ramadan (which means heat in Arabic) was given this name because of the hot temperature and excessive heat of the sun during this month. Shawwaal (which means raise in Arabic) was given this name because she camels would raise their tails when they became pregnant. Thul-Qi’dah (which means sitting in Arabic) was given this name because it was the month during which they would sit and stop fighting. Thul-Hijjah (which refers to Hajj in Arabic) was given this name because it was the month during which they performed Hajj.
In the abovementioned verse, Allaah informs us that since He created the Heavens and earth, and created days and nights, and made the sun and the moon, each float in an orbit, as a result of which the darkness of nights and the light of days occur. It was from that time that Allaah had set the months to be twelve, and He, Almighty, informed us that He, Almighty, designated four of them to be sacred.
We must respect the sanctity of these sacred months, by adhering to the commandments of Allaah, and rejecting that which the people of the pre-Islamic period were upon, like delaying the restrictions of these months or changing their sequence. It is for this reason that the Prophet said in his farewell pilgrimage: “O People! Time has gone back to how it was at the time Allaah created the Heavens and the Earth. A year has twelve months, four of which are sacred, three consecutive, Thul-Qi’dah, Thul-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab, which comes between Jumaadaa and Sha’baan.” [Al-Bukhaari]
The words (which mean) “…when He created the Heavens and earth…” [Quran 9: 36] are to clarify that the decree of Allaah took place very early on, and that He set the months, named them and sequenced them when He created the Heavens and the earth, then He revealed this upon His Prophets within the divined Books.
The verse is informing us that the ruling of these months will remain (names, sequence and sacredness), and the changes made by the disbelievers to the sequence would have no effect. Moreover, whatever the disbelievers had changed could not change what Allaah had decreed.
This verse also indicates that it is compulsory to base acts of worship and Islamic rulings on these months, and not the ones the Christians use. Therefore, it is not fit for a Muslim to prefer using these Roman or Christian months over these Arabic (named) months.
They are: Thul-Qi’dah, Thul-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab which is between Jumaadaa Al-Aakhirah and Sah’baan. It was also called Rajab of Mudhar, because the tribe of Mudhar used to adhere to its sacredness, while another tribe by the name of Rabee’ah Ibn Nizaar used to change sacredness of Rajab to Ramadan. In order to lift this confusion the Prophet said: “Rajab, which comes between Jumaadaa and Sah’baan”.
Allaah Says in the same verse (which means): “…that is the right religion” meaning, this Sharee’ah (Islamic law) and obedience therein, is the right and straight path. Then Allaah continues Saying that (which means): “Do not wrong (oppress) yourselves therein” [Quran 9: 36] which is referring to all months of the year but the sacred months hold a special position which makes oppressing oneself greater, just as Allaah Says (what means): “no sexual relation (with spouse), no sinning, nor unjust dispute” [Quran 9: 36] and this certainly does not indicate that one can sin other than the time of Hajj but it is to reflect the greatness of sinning during its rituals.
Do not wrong (oppress) yourselves by fighting and committing sins, because when Allaah honors something for one reason, it becomes that much honored, but when He honors for two or more reasons, then sacredness becomes more, and punishment for disobedience is multiplied accordingly. For example, one who obeys Allaah during the sacred months in the sacred area will receive more reward than obeying Allaah during other months, and the one who obeys Allaah during months other than the sacred months outside the sacred area will receive less reward than he who obeys Allaah inside the sacred area. Allaah gave an indication to this in His Saying (which means): “O wives of the Prophet, whoever of you should commit a clear immorality – for her the punishment will be doubled two fold, and ever is that for Allaah, easy.” [Quran 33:30]