Glossary of Hajj and Umrah terms

Saturday 01/10/2011
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Abtah:

A place formed after flood, which is usually level and containing no pebbles or stones. The term is given to every place that becomes leveled by a water stream. It is also Al-Abtah, Al-Bat-haa’ and Al-Bat-h.
Bat-haa’ refers to a place between Makkah and Mina, which is called as such due to its level wide valley. It is also called Al-Muhassib and Al-Mu‘arris
 
Ihraam:
Ihraam is derived from an Arabic root that means prevention. A man is in Ihraam when he is in the sacred month, or when he proceeds with Hajj or ‘Umrah. It is called as such because some acts which were lawful to him before become prohibited, such as hunting and sexual intercourse.
Technically, scholars mentioned several definitions for Ihraam, all are close; we choose the following: the intention to start performing the rituals of Hajj or ‘Umrah.
 
Ihsaar:
Ihsaar is derived from an Arabic root that means inability. The term applies to everyone who is prevented from something, and hence, cannot achieve it. According to the Sharee‘ah, Ihsaar refers to every impediment, whether it is an enemy, a disease or the like, that prevents the pilgrim from completing his rituals.
 
Istitaa‘ah:
Istitaa‘ah means the ability to do something. In Sharee‘ah, it refers to the ability of the person who is competent for religious assignment to do his duties without need of any one else. Books of Fiqh listed various forms of Istitaa‘ah; the form that makes Hajj an obligation means possessing necessary provisions and means of travel as detailed in the relevant books of Fiqh.
 
Istilaam:
Istilaam in Arabic means to touch with the hand or the mouth. In the Sharee‘ah, Istilaam of the Black Stone means kissing it or touching it with the hand. Jaabir, May Allah Be Pleased with him, related that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) touched the [Yamaani] Corner during his pilgrimage. If the pilgrim who makes Tawaaf around the Ka‘bah cannot touch or kiss the Black Stone, he should stand facing it, point to it and say Takbeer. In a Hadeeth, Ibn ‘Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: "The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) made Tawaaf around the House on a camel. Whenever he passed by the Corner, he pointed to it with something he had, then he said Takbeer." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said to ‘Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, "O ‘Umar! You are a strong man, so do not push to reach the Stone and hence, hurt those who are weak. If you find a space, kiss it and touch it; otherwise, face it and make Tahleel and Takbeer."If a pilgrim can face the Stone with something, like a stick in his hand, he should do so because the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) did so. Ibn ‘Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said, "The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) made Tawaaf during the Farewell Hajj on a camel and pointed to the Corner with a crook."
 
Ishtiraat:
Ishtiraat is derived from an Arabic root that suggests stipulation and abiding by it. In the context of Ihraam, it occurs when a Muslim assuming the state of Ihraam says, "O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj or ‘Umrah, but my dissolution will be if something prevents me." This thing may be a disease or an enemy, or anything else that prevents a Muslim in the state of Ihraam from completing the rituals. It is not permissible for him to end his state of Ihraam directly if he has not made Ishtiraat. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And complete theHajj and ‘Umrah for Allah.} [Quran 2:196] Ishtiraat is mentioned in the Sunnah. ‘Aa’ishah, May Allah Be Pleased with her, said: "The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) entered upon ‘Dhubaa‘ah bint Az-Zubayr and asked her if she intended to perform Hajj. When she told him that she was sick, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Enter into the state of Ihraam and make Ishtiraat. Say: I would be free from it wherever You (O Allah) Would Detain me." In another narration, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) added:"This exception frees you from liability before Allah The Almighty."
 
Ish‘aar:
Ish‘aar linguistically means announcement. It may also apply to stabbing an animal in the right side to shed its blood, so that it will be recognized as Hady. Hady is an animal (camels or cows,…) which is slaughtered and offered in the Sacred Precincts. The majority of scholars stated that Ish‘aar Al-Hady means stabbing the side of the camel's hump while it faces the Qiblah, thus making it bleed and marking it with its blood to announce it as a sacrificial animal. This includes camels and cows.
 
Ash-hur Al-Hajj (Months of Hajj):
Months of Hajj refer to the three consecutive months that Allah The Almighty Assigned to be the time for performing Hajj. They are the months of Shawwaal, Thul-Qa‘dah and the whole month of Thul-Hijjah according to the Maaliki scholars, or the first ten days of it according to the majority of scholars. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Hajj is [during] well-known months.} [Quran 2:197] The two opinions are supported with proofs, which are not to be discussed here, but the benefit of this divergence appears in offering the sacrificial animal when Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah is delayed after the months of Hajj.
 
Ash-hur Hurum (Sacred Months):
The sacred months are four: Thul-Qa‘dah, Thul-Hijjah, Al-Muharram and Rajab. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He Created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred.} [Quran 9:36] The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The division of time has turned to its original form as it was when Allah Created the Heavens and the Earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred; three are in succession: Thul-Qa‘dah, Thul-Hijjah and Al-Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudhar which comes between Jumaada and Sha‘baan."
 
Idhtibaa':
This term is derived from an Arabic root that means the upper arm. Idhtibaa‘ means wrapping the garment under the right armpit and rolling the two edges over the left arm, so that the right shoulder is exposed and the left is covered. It is so-called because one of the upper arms is exposed – something which was done if someone wanted to prepare to work, which is what the pilgrim does when wearing his Ihraam garments.
 
Ifaadhah:
Ifaadhah is derived from an Arabic root that signifies spreading or overflowing. In Sharee‘ah terminology, Ifaadhah means departure of the pilgrims from ‘Arafaat to Mina after completing their rituals in ‘Arafaat. Each group of departing pilgrims is called an Ifaadhah. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {But when you depart from ‘Arafaat, remember Allah at Al- Mash‘ar Al-Haraam.} [Quran 2:198]
 
Aafaaqi:
The word literally refers to the horizons of the earth and the heavens. Muslim jurists use the term to refer to a person existing outside the sites of Ihraam even if he is a resident of Makkah. The opposite of Aafaaqi is Hilli or Bustaani, which means the person who is within the limits of Ihraam sites, but outside the Sacred Precincts. The Harami is the one who is within the limits of the Sacred Precincts of Makkah. Sometimes the word Aafaaqi is given to anyone outside the limits of the Sacred Precincts of Makkah.
 
Ifraad:
Ifraad means odd or single. It also refers to performance of Hajj or ‘Umrah separately. As a Sharee‘ah terminology, it means declaring the intention to perform Hajj alone during its prescribed months.
 
Ihlaal:
In Arabic, Ihlaal means raising one's voice upon seeing the new moon, and it is used to describe any person who raises or lowers his voice. In the context of Hajj, it refers to the pilgrim who enters the state of Ihraam and raises his voice with Talbiyah. It also applies to the person who raises his voice with Talbiyah in ‘Umrah. Muhall refers to the time and place in which pilgrims enter the state of Ihraam.
Technically speaking, Ihlaal is making Talbiyah for Hajj or ‘Umrah upon entering the state of Ihaam. In this sense, it has the same meaning of Ihraam because the pilgrim raises his voice with Talbiyah. ‘Aa’ishah, May Allah Be Pleased with her, said: "We accompanied the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) in the Farewell Hajj; some of us made Ihlaal with ‘Umrah and others made Ihlaal with Hajj." In the same Hadeeth, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Whoever made Ihlaal with Hajj should complete it."
 
Ayyaam At-Tashreeq (The days of Tashreeq):
The word Tashreeq is derived from an Arabic root that means “east” or the rise of the sun from the east. It refers to three meanings:
-    Moving toward the direction of the east.
-   ‘Eed Prayer because it is performed at the time of sunrise. ‘Ali, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: "There is no Friday Prayer or Tashreeq (‘Eed Prayer) except in a big city." [Ibn Hajar: narrated by Abu ‘Ubayd with a Saheeh chain of transmission]
-   The three days following the day of An-Nahr (the first day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha). This is the common usage of the term.
These three days were called the days of Tashreeq because the Muslims used to make Tashreeq of meat which means to slice, dry and spread the meat of the sacrificial animals under the heat of the sun, as stated by Ibn Hajar, May Allah Have mercy upon him. Days of Tashreeq are also called Al-Ayaam Al-Ma‘doodaat (the numbered days), as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days.} [Quran 2:203] They are also called Ayyaam Mina (the days of Mina), because pilgrims spend these days in Mina.
 
Ayyaam Mina (Days of Mina):
Mina is a village near Makkah. Allah The Almighty Decreed that sacrificial animals are to be slaughtered there. The Days of Mina are the same days of Tashreeq, as explained above. They are called the Days of Mina because the pilgrim stays in Mina in order to throw the Jimaar.
 
Badr:
Badr is an Arabic root that means fullness or may also mean taking the initiative. Badr refers to a well-known water well located between Makkah and Al-Madeenah. It is said that the well is named after a man called Badr ibn Yakhlud ibn An-Nadhr ibn Kinaanah, who inhabited this area. The blessed Battle of Badr in which truth defeated falsehood took place in the vicinity of this well. All the Companions, May Allah Be Pleased with them, who attended this battle, are attributed to Badr.
 
Badanah:
Badanah is a camel or a cow slaughtered in Makkah as an act of worship. Linguistically, it refers to the state of fatness or fleshiness. In that sense, Arabic linguists consider camels, cows and sheep, whether male or female, to be Badanah. In the literature of Fiqh, Badanah is a single camel, cow or sheep, male or female.
 
Baqee':
Al-Baqee‘ refers to a place where various stumps are found, such as Baqee‘ Al-Gharqad (i.e. the place of large boxthorns), which is the graveyard of the people of Al-Madeenah. It is located inside Al-Madeenah.
 
Al-Bayt Al-‘Ateeq:
The word ‘Ateeq is an Arabic adjective that may signify either ancient or noble. Technically speaking, Al-Bayt Al-‘Ateeq is the Ka‘bah. In the Quran, Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Then their place of sacrifice is at the ancient House.} [Quran 22:33] Some say that it is one of the names of Makkah because it is free of tyrants, or because no tyrant can claim the ownership of this House (since ‘Ateeq may also be derived from an Arabic root meaning to free or emancipate).
 
Tahallul:
Tahallul is derived from an Arabic root suggesting opening or untying (a knot). Tahallul in Hajj refers to dissolution or ending the state of Ihraam by virtue of which all restrictions of Hajj return lawful. A pilgrim who makes Tahallul is not in the state of Ihraam and is no longer performing Hajj.
 
Tadhalla':
Tadhalla‘ means to eat or drink to fullness, as stated in a Hadeeth. It is a state in which man drinks until his stomach and ribs spread out.
 
Tafath:
Tafath in Arabic is filth and dirt. In Hajj, Tafath means plucking out one's hair and clipping the nails, as an act of ending one's Ihraam. In the Quran, Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Then let them end their (Tafath) untidiness and fulfill their vows.} [Quran 22:29] meaning let them fulfill their needs of shaving and cleaning. Thus, Tafath is what the pilgrim does after he ends his Ihraam, such as clipping the moustache and nails, plucking armpit hair, shaving pubic hair and other acts that a person in the state of Ihraam is not permitted to do.
 
Taqleed Al-Hady:
Taqleed literally means fastening a collar around the neck. To make Taqleed to a camel is to put something around its neck to mark it as a Hady. Hady is livestock (camel, cow or sheep) slaughtered as a sacrificial animal in the Sacred Precincts. Taqleed Al-Hady, therefore, means to fasten a piece of leather or the like around the neck of an animal to declare it to be a sacrificial animal.
 
Talbiyah:
Talbiyah is derived from an Arabic root signifying staying in a particular place. In the context of Hajj, Talbiyah means that a pilgrim says: "Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk, Labbayka la Shareeka laka Labbayk, Inna Al-Hamda wan-Ni‘mata laka wal-Mulk La Shareeka Lak. (O Allah! I hasten to You. You Have no partner. I hasten to You. All praise and grace belong to You and the Sovereignty too; You Have no partner)". It is permissible for the pilgrim to say Talbiyah at any time.
 
Tamattu':
Tamattu‘ is derived from an Arabic root that means enjoyment or benefit. It is mentioned in this context because Hajj is an enjoyment and benefit. According to the Sharee‘ah, Tamattu‘ occurs when a Muslim enters the state of Ihraam to perform ‘Umrah during the months of Hajj, then ends it, then enters Ihraam again to perform Hajj in the same year.
 
Tan'eem:
Tan‘eem is a place in Makkah, which was named as such because it is located between a mountain called Nu‘aym on the right and another mountain called Naa‘im on the left. The valley is called Nu‘maan where the people of Makkah enter into the state of Ihraam for ‘Umrah.
 
Thajj:
Thajj linguistically means abundant water. In the Sharee‘ah terminology, Thajj refers to flow of the blood of Hady and sacrificial animals. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The best acts of Hajj is ‘Ajj and Thajj." [At-Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah and others] Scholars classified this Hadeeth as Saheeh. ‘Ajj means raising one's voice in Talbiyah.
 
Jabal Uhud (Mountain of Uhud):
The Mountain of Uhud is located four kilometers to the north of Al-Madeenah. It is six kilometers long from the east to the west and 1200 meters high. It was the site of the Battle of Uhud that took place in the third year after Hijrah. It was narrated on the authority of Anas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "This is a mountain that loves us and that we love."
 
Jabal Ar-Rahmah (Mountain of Mercy):
It is a mount in the valley of ‘Arafaat where the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) gave Khutbah in the Farewell Hajj. It is also called Ilaal or the mount of supplication. Jaabir, May Allah Be Pleased with him, in his description of the manner of the Prophet's Hajj, said: "…he made his she-camel Al-Qaswaa’ turn towards the side where there were rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qiblah..." It is not permissible to climb it, according to the consensus of scholars.
 
Jabal Thawr (Mount of Thawr):
A mount in Makkah that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) hid in one of its caves during his migration to Al-Madeenah. It is the one mentioned in the Quran where Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {When they were in the cave.} [Quran 9:40]
 
Juhfah:
A large village located along the road to Al-Madeenah from Makkah. It was called as such because floods stroke it and its people in some years. When the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) arrived at Al-Madeenah, he found it unhealthy and his Companions suffered fever. He then said: "O Allah, make us love Al-Madeenah as much as You Made us love Makkah or more. O Allah, make it healthy and bless its Saa‘ and Mudd (i.e. measures), and take away its fever to Al-Juhfah." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] Al-Juhafah used to be the site of Ihraam for the people of Egypt, Ash-Shaam and Morocco, but when it was destroyed and became inappropriate for pilgrims, people replaced it with a place called Raabigh, which is a little closer to Makkah, about 186 km from it.
 
Ji'raanah:
A water place located between At-Taa’if and Makkah to which it is closer. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) arrived there when he distributed the war booties of Hawaazin after his return from the Battle of Hunayn. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) entered the state of Ihraam from Al-Ji‘raanah and built a Masjid in it. It also contains some wells close to one another.
 
Jamaraat:
It is the place of throwing Jimaar (pebbles), which is an obligatory act of Hajj. There are three Jamaraat: the first and the middle, which are near the Masjid of Al-Khayf in the direction of Makkah, and the great one, which is called Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah at the end of Mina in the direction of Makkah.
 
Jo’aar:
Jo’aar is derived from an Arabic root that means raising one's voice in imploration or supplication. Supplicating to Allah The Almighty in a loud voice is called Jo’aar. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {They are crying [to Allah] for help.} [Quran 23:64] Jo’aar in Hajj is exclusive to Talbiyah. In a Hadeeth, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "It is as if I am watching Moosa (Moses) making Jo’aar,  entreating his Lord with Talbiyah." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) also said: "Jibreel (Gabriel) came to me and said, 'O Muhammad! Order your Companions to raise their voices in Talbiyah; it is one of the symbols of Hajj."
 
Jidaal:
Jidaal is derived from an Arabic root that means entwining, then it later became used in the sense of violent dispute. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "People never go astray after being upon guidance except through dispute." Here the Hadeeth refers to dispute to support falsehood or error, not to manifest the truth. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {No (Jidaal) disputing duringHajj.} [Quran 2:197] meaning a person should not engage in dispute with his brother in a manner that urges him to behave unproperly.
 
Hajj:
Hajj linguistically signifies frequent visits. According to the Sharee‘ah, Hajj means visiting the Sacred House of Allah to perform certain rituals or acts of worship during the months of Hajj. A pilgrim is called Al-Haajj because he frequently visits the House to perform Tawaaf Al-Qudoom and the other rituals of Hajj.
 
Al-Hajj Al-Akbar (The Greater or major Hajj):
The greater Hajj refers to the Day of An-Nahr. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [it is] an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage.} [Quran 9:3] It was called the greater Hajj because people called ‘Umrah the minor Hajj, as authentically narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah in Saheeh Al-Bukhari. It was narrated that, "‘Umrah is the minor Hajj," but scholars said that this Hadeeth is not authentic. The Day of An-Nahr was called the greater Hajj because pilgrims perform many rituals in it.
 
Hijr:
Hijr is derived from an Arabic root signifying impediment or prevention. Hijr describes many sites, but it often refers to the semi-circular wall facing one of the sides of the Ka‘bah. This is part of the foundation laid by Ibraaheem (Abraham), May Allah Exalt his mention, which Quraysh excluded when they rebuilt the Ka‘bah. They encircled this place so that people would know that it is part of the Ka‘bah. As a result, it was called Hijr. This place became widely known as Hijr Ismaa‘eel (Ishmael), May Allah Exalt his mention, but there is no basis for this name since Ismaa‘eel helped his father Ibraaheem in the process of building the Ka‘bah and it was complete then.
 
Al-Hajar Al-Aswad (The Block Stone):
The Black Stone is located in the wall of the Ka‘bah on the north corner. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The Black Stone is from Paradise." [Ahmad, At-Tirmithi: Hasan Saheeh]
 
Hudaybiyah or Hudaybiyyah:
It is a valley near Makkah which was named after a well in it. It is at approximately 50 km from Makkah. Part of Al-Hudaybiyyah is located within the Sacred Precincts, and another part outside it. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) received allegiance of his Companions in Al-Hudayibiyyah and it was called the Allegiance of Ar-Ridhwaan under the tree; he signed Al-Hudaybiyyah Peace Treaty with the polytheists in it and made his first ‘Umrah from there but he was prevented from entering the House.
 
Hateem:
People differed about specifying the location of Al-Hateem; some said that it is located between the Station of Ibraaheem along the gate; others said that it is between the Corner and the Station, and Zamzam and Al-Hijr; a third group said that it is between the Black Stone toward the gate and ends at the Station. It is a place where people intensively supplicate Allah The Almighty. People in the pre-Islamic era used to solemnly take vows at that place, so that any one who supplicated against an oppressor and swore falsely would receive his punishment immediately. The preponderant opinion is that it refers to Al-Hijr itself because it was destroyed and excluded from the frame of the Ka‘bah (since Hateem may also be derived from an Arabic root that means to destroy).
 
Khabab:
Khabab is derived from an Arabic root that means deception or a pace of running. In a Hadeeth, "When the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) used to make Tawaaf, he would hasten in three rounds."
According to the Sharee‘ah, Khabab refers to fast walking in Tawaaf without running. It is also called Ar-Ramal.
 
Khayf:
It is a slope of a mountain which is higher than the level of the water stream. There is a Masjid in Mina called Masjid Al-Khayf.
 
Thaat-‘Irq:
‘Irq literally refers to a garden, and the Arabs used to give this name to the fertile land where plants grow.
Thaat ‘Irq is the site where the people of Iraq and Khurasaan enter the state of Ihraam. It has a small mountain, and is 100 km from Makkah. Thaat ‘Irq is uninhabited nowadays because there are no roads leading to it. Next to it there is a large valley called Al-‘Aqeeq, which is 20 km from Thaat ‘Irq and 120 km from ‘Arafah. People enter the state of Ihraam in that valley.
 
Thul-Hulayfah:
Hulayfah is derived from an Arabic root referring to a type of plant or tree, and it was named as such due to the abundance of that type of tree there.
Thul-Hulayfah is the site where people of Al-Madeenah enter the state of Ihraam. It is the farthest of Ihraam sites from Makkah – about 400 km away. Now it is known as Abyaar ‘Ali – a name taken after a fabricated story in which ‘Ali, May Allah Be Pleased with him, fought the Jinn over there. Ibn Taymiyyah, May Allah Have mercy upon him, stated that the story is unfounded and was never narrated from ‘Ali, May Allah Be Pleased with him.
 
Raabigh:
Raabigh in Arabic has three meanings: pure dust, a great deal of anything, or leaving camels to drink water whenever they want.
Raabigh is an interior valley near Al-Juhfah, which became the site where people of Ash-Shaam, Egypt and Morocco enter the state of Ihraam, instead of Al-Juhfah.
 
Ramal:
Ramal linguistically means hastening or walking fast with shaking of the shoulders. Technically, Ramal means fast walking during Tawaaf without running.
 
Rafath:
Rafath is idle talk, but the term was later used to mean sexual intercourse and anything relevant to it. Rafath may refer to an implicit reference to intercourse. Some scholars said that Rafath is a comprehensive word meaning everything a man needs from a woman. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {There is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing duringHajj.} [Quran 2:197]
It is possible that the verse refers to forbidding saying foul words, such as mentioning words suggestive of intercourse, or it may mean that there should be no intercourse or words urging it.
Rafath in the state of Ihraam includes intercourse and its foreplay such as kissing, touching, flirtation, suggestive words – all are prohibited in the state of Ihraam.
 
Rafdh:
Rafdh literally means to leave something or abandon it. In the context of Ihraam, it means stopping to continue the rituals of Hajj and intending to end it before its completion. Scholars unanimously considered it idle talk whereby Ihraam is not cancelled and remains subject to its rulings.
 
Rukn (Ar-Rukn Al-Yamaani):
Rukn in Arabic refers to the strongest side of something or to strong support and power.
Ar-Rukn Al-Yamaani is one of the corners of the Ka‘bah, which was called as such after the name of a man from Yemen called ’Ubay ibn Saalim, who built it.
 
Ramy (Ramy Al-Jimaar):
Ramy is to throw or cast. Jamrah is a pebble or a small stone which is thrown, whereas Jimaar refers to the place of the pebbles where people gather in great numbers. Thus, Jimaar has two meanings:
1-   The pebbles or small stones that are thrown.
2-   The place into which the pebbles are thrown because they end up there.
Ramy Al-Jimaar (throwing the pebbles) is a ritual that a pilgrim does on the day of An-Nahr and the three days of At-Tashreeq in which he throws seven pebbles in a specific manner mentioned in the books of Fiqh.
 
Sa'y:
Sa‘y literally means to do any action or to walk a lot. Examples for these meanings are mentioned in the Quran.
Sa‘y from the Sharee‘ah perspective means to walk the distance between As-Safa and Al-Marwah seven times to and fro after Tawaaf as part of the rituals of Hajj or ‘Umrah. Sometimes Sa‘y is called Tawaaf or Titwaaf as mentioned in the Quran in verse [2:158].
 
Shatharwaan:
An area protruding from the foundation of the Ka‘bah, which appears down the walls of the Ka‘bah but not at the Black Stone. It is two-thirds of a cubit high and is also called Ta’zeer because it is like an Izaar (wrap) around the Ka‘bah. Scholars differed about whether it is part of the Ka‘bah or a support for it.
 
Safa:
Safa is an Arabic root that signifies a smooth stone or purity. In Hajj, Safa refers to one of the mountains of Sa‘y, which is a hill raised in the mountain of Abu Qubays. A person who stands on it would be parallel to the Black Stone.
 
Sawaaff:
Sawaaff is a description of the manner in which camels stand for slaughtering. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And the camels and cattle We Have Appointed for you as among the symbols of Allah; for you therein is good. So mention the name of Allah upon them when lined up [for sacrifice].} [Quran 22:36] A camel is slaughtered standing on three legs, whereas its fourth, its left foreleg, is tied.
 
Tawaaf:
Linguistically, Tawaaf means circumambulation, and the person who turns around the house to guard it is called Taa’if. It may also be used rhetorically in reference to a touch or impulse of the Jinn or the like. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, those who fear Allah – when an impulse touches them from Satan, they remember [Him] and at once they have insight.} [Quran 7:201] The place of Tawaaf is called Mataaf, and Tawaaf may sometimes be used in the sense of Sa‘y. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So whoever makesHajj to the House or performs ‘Umrah - there is no blame upon him for walking between them.} [Quran 3:158]
As a Sharee‘ah term, Tawaaf means circumambulating the Ka‘bah seven consecutive times without a considerable interval between them.
 
Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah:
 Ifaadhah in Arabic means returning or going forth in great number. When it is used with the pilgrims, it has two meanings:

-   To proceed hurriedly from ‘Arafah to Al-Muzdalifah.

-   To return from Mina to Makkah on the Day of An-Nahr.

Technically speaking, Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah is the Tawaaf that is carried out after return from ‘Arafah on the day of An-Nahr. It is one of the obligatory acts of Hajj, and is called Rukn Al-Hajj.
 
Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah (Tawaaf of visiting):
Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah is sometimes called Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah,Tawaaf Al-Waajib or Tawaaf As-Sadr. It is called Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah because it is done upon visiting the Ka‘bah; Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah because it is done after the visit is over; Tawaaf Al-Waajib because it is an obligatory act of Hajj; Tawaaf As-Sadr because it is done after returning from ‘Arafaat.
 
Tawaaf Al-Qudoom:
It is the Tawaaf that a pilgrim carries out upon his arrival to perform the obligation of Hajj. Scholars unanimously agreed that it is Sunnah.
 
Tawaaf Al-Wadaa':
It is the Tawaaf that a pilgrim makes after he finishes the rituals of Hajj and prepares to return to his country. Tawaaf Al-Wadaa‘ is obligatory.
 
'Ajj:
‘Ajj linguistically means raising one's voice. According to the Sharee‘ah, ‘Ajj means raising one's voice in Talbiyah. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The best acts of Hajj are the ‘Ajj and Thajj." [At-Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah and others] Scholars classified this Hadeeth as Saheeh. Thajj was previously explained.
 
'Arafaat or 'Arafah:
Most scholars consider the two terms equal. ‘Arafah is located along the road between Makkah and At-Taa’if, 22 km to the east of Makkah, 10 km from Mina and 6 km from Al-Muzdalifah. It is a level stretched plain surrounded by a mountainous curve whose cavity is called the valley of ‘Arafah.
Standing in ‘Arafah is the most supreme ritual of Hajj and the only one that is performed outside the Sacred Precincts. The whole area of ‘Arafah is a valid place to stand in, as stated in the Hadeeth. Standing in ‘Arafah starts after Thuhr Prayer on the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah.
 
'Adhadh:
Adhadh is an Arabic verb that means to cut. In his Khutbah which was given on the day of the Conquest of Makkah, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) forbade Muslims to cut the trees of Makkah.
 
'Atab:
‘Atab is derived from an Arabic root that means destruction, breaking or balking of an animal. ‘Atab Al-Hady means death of the animal or a defect that befalls it and prevents it from walking, so it is slaughtered. Naajiyah Al-Khuzaa‘i, a caretaker of the camels of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said:"O Messenger of Allah! What should I do with the camels that are fatigued?" The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) instructed him to slaughter it, dip its shoes in its blood, and leave it for the people (to eat)."
 
Fidyah:
Fidyah refers to money or anything else given as compensation for some matter. Technically, Fidyat Al-Athaa (Fidyah of harm) means what a pilgrim offers to Allah The Almighty as compensation for committing some restrictions of Ihraam, such as wearing Makheet (tight-fitting clothes), perfume or the like.
 
Fawaat:
Fawaat literally means to miss something or to be second to someone else in doing something. In the context of Hajj, Fawaat means missing the act of staying in ‘Arafah. A pilgrim who does not stay in ‘Arafah, his Hajj becomes invalid. The majority of scholars said that he must end his Ihraam and perform ‘Umrah. He must make up for that Hajj the following year if his Hajj is obligatory. It is not obligatory on him to make up for that Hajj or offer sacrificial animals if he had made Ishtiraat.
 
Qubaa':
Qubaa’ is a well after which the village of Qubaa’ was named. It is the dwellings of Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf –a tribe from Al-Ansaar. The village of Qubaa’ is about 3 km from Al-Madeenah, on the left of the person heading towards Makkah. Located in Qubaa’ is the Masijd about which Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in.} [Quran 9:108] It is the Masjid in which the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his noble Companions, May Allah Be Pleased with them, performed prayer toward the direction of Jerusalem before they were commanded to face the Sacred House. Also located in Qubaa’ is Masjid Ad-Dhiraar which is mentioned in the Quran. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm.} [Quran 9:107]
 
Qiraan:
Qiraan is derived from an Arabic root that means pulling towards or joining. In the context of Hajj, it means to combine between Hajj and ‘Umrah in one Ihraam. In a Hadeeth, The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) “…combined Hajj and ‘Umrah…" It means that he declared to perform both Hajj and ‘Umrah together with the same intention, the same Talbiyah, the same Tawaaf and the same Sa‘y. In this case, a pilgrim says, "Labbayk bi-Hijjah wa ‘Umrah (O Allah! I declare my intention to perform Hajj and ‘Umrah)."
 
Qarn Al-Manaazil:
In Arabic, the word Qarn has many denotations, such as top of a mountain or hill, first part of a desert, a single or small mountain and the small beginning of anything.
Qarn Al-Manaazil is the site where people of Yemen and At-Taa'if enter the state of Ihraam. Ibn ‘Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: "The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) assigned Qarn [Al-Manaazil] to be the site of Ihraam for the people of Najd." Qarn Al-Manaazil is 75 km from Makkah. Some people say that it is the same place called Qarn Ath-Tha‘aalib, but the correct view is that they are different places and the latter is a mountain that overlooks the end of Mina. Qarn Al-Manaazil is known nowadays as As-Sayl Al-Kabeer.
 
Makheet:
Makheet refers to a tool for sewing or a needle. Allah The Almighty Mentioned it in the Quran Saying (what means): {Nor will they enter Paradise until a camel enters into the eye of a needle.} [Quran 7:40]
Makheet technically refers to clothes sewn to fit the body, such as the Qamees (shirt) or Sirwaal (trousers). It is not permissible for the person in the state of Ihraam to wear Makheet.
 
Marwah:
Marwah refers to a glittering white stone used for igniting a fire. Marwah is a mountain in Makkah named after this stone.
 
Muzdalifah:
Muzdalifah is derived from an Arabic root that means meeting or coming close, either because it helps people get close to Allah The Almighty, or because pilgrims gather there after their return from ‘Arafah, or because it brings them closer to Mina after their return from ‘Arafah.
Muzdalifah is a place located between the interior part of Muhassir and Al-Ma’zimayn, and is halfway between Mina and ‘Arafaat, about 5.5 km from Mina. It is the place where pilgrims spend their night and combine prayers after they return from ‘Arafaat. Muzdalifah is also called Jam‘ and Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam.
 
Masjid Al-Qiblatayn:
It is located at the border of the valley of Al-‘Aqeeq in the north west of Al-Madeenah. The Masjid was named as such because it has two Qiblahs: the first one is to the north toward Jerusalem to which Muslims performed prayers at the beginning of Islam, and the second one to the south toward Makkah, which became the established Qiblah. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {So turn your face toward Al-Masjid Al-Haraam.} [Quran 2:144]
 
Masjid Namirah:
Namirah is a place located in ‘Arafah in which the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) dismounted and gave his Farewell Khutbah. In a Hadeeth, it is narrated that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) “…ordered that a leather tent be set up for him in Namirah..." It is the mountain that marks the boundaries of the Sacred Precincts in ‘Arafaat.
 
Mash'ar Al-Haraam:
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam is the entire area of Muzdalifah where pilgrims perform prayer after they return from ‘Arafaat. They perform both Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ Prayers combined and delayed in Muzdalifah where they also perform Fajr Prayer of the first day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha before they proceed to throw the pebbles. It is obligatory on the pilgrims to spend the night there. The name Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam is also given to the mountain of Quzah in Muzdalifah on which the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) stood on the Day of An-Nahr. He supplicated, glorified and praised Allah The Almighty there until sunrise, then headed to Mina.
 
Ma'dhoob:
Ma‘dhoob is derived from an Arabic root that means cut off or weak. Technically, Ma‘dhoob is the person who suffers a chronic condition that prevents him from performing the rituals of Hajj, such as paralysis, old age or the like, so another person performs Hajj on his behalf.
 
Maqaam (Maqaam Ibraaheem):
Maqaam is located in the Sacred Mosque, and refers to the stone on which Prophet Ibraaheem (Abraham), May Allah Exalt his mention, stood to raise the foundations of the House. It is mentioned in the Quran, as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Ibraaheem a place of prayer.} [Quran 2:125] Some traditions mention that the stone was a corundum (ruby or sapphire) from Paradise. It is closer to the Ka‘bah than the well of Zamzam.
 
Multazam:
Al-Multazam is a part of the Ka‘bah that pilgrims adhere to for the purpose of supplicating and seeking refuge, and is located between the Black Stone and the gate. It is also called Al-Mad‘a and Al-Muta‘wwath. Ibn ‘Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: "The place between the Corner and the gate is called Al-Multazam; no Muslim stands in it and asks Allah for something, but He Will grant it to him." It was narrated that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) used to put his chest, face, arms and palms between the Corner and the gate.
 
Miqaat:
Miqaat refers to either the time or place appointed for an action. Miqaat of a particular people means the site where they enter the state of Ihraam, or the time for doing it.
Technically speaking, Miqaat is the time or site in which particular actions should be done. It is more general than the date. Some said that it is the place and time of an act of worship. Miqaat of Hajj in Sharee‘ah is the time and place of entering Ihraam for Hajj.
 
Meelaan Akhdharaan (The two green Meelaan):
It refers to the two signs in the wall of the Sacred Mosque, in the place appointed for Sa‘y between As-Safa and Al-Marwa that mark the location of the interior part of the valley, and hence, the location of hastening. A pilgrim hastens from the beginning of the interior part of the valley starting at the first sign until the end of the valley at the second one, then he walks the rest.
 
Himyaan:
Himyaan is the waistband of trousers. It is a belt or a strap a pilgrim fastens around his waist and a pocket to keep money in. In Saheeh Al-Bukhari, ‘Ataa’, May Allah Have mercy upon him, said that a pilgrim is allowed to wear rings and waistbands. Ibn ‘Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, made Tawaaf in the state of Ihraam, while he was fastening a piece of cloth around his waist.” Most scholars held that a person in the state of Ihraam is permitted to wear a Himyaan.
 
Yalamlam:
Yalamlam is derived from an Arabic root that means to combine or to maintain one's affairs. Yalamlam is one of the Tehama Mountains, 92 km to the south of Makkah. Yalamlam is currently known as As-Sa‘diyyah, and it is the Miqaat of the people of Yemen, India, Jawa and Sumatra Islands. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said in the Hadeeth of Mawaaqeet: "…and for the people of Yemen, Yalamlam..." TheMasjid of Mu‘aath ibn Jabal, May Allah Be Pleased with him, is located there.
 
Day of At-Tarwiyyah:
It is the 8th day of the month of Thul-Hijjah, and was named as such because people used to drink much water in preparation for setting out to Mina and ‘Arafah. On that day, the pilgrims proceed to Mina to spend the night there.
 
Day of Ar-Ru’oos:
It is the second day of the days of Tashreeq. It was narrated on the authority of Sarraa’ bint Nabhaan Al-Ghanawiyyah that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said in the Farewell Hajj: "Do you know which day it is today? It is the day that people call the day of Ar-Ru’oos?" People replied that Allah The Almighty and His Messenger know best. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "This is the middle day of the days of At-Tashreeq." [Dha‘eef] It was called the day of Ar-Ru’oos because people eat heads of the sacrificial animals in it.
 
Day of As-Sadr:
It is the 13th day of Thul-Hijjah, which is also called the day of the second return. As-Sadr is an Arabic word that means to return from a travel, and it was named as such because pilgrims return from Makkah to their own countries on that day.
 
Day of ‘Arafah:
It is the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah, and was named as such because the pilgrims stay in ‘Arafah on that day. Staying in ‘Arafah is the major obligatory deed of Hajj. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The Hajj is ‘Arafah."[Ahmad: Saheeh]
 
Day of Al-Qarr:
Qarr is derived from an Arabic root that means the place of dwelling. The Day of Al-Qarr is the day that follows the Day of An-Nahr. It is the 11th day of Thul-Hijjah and was called as such because pilgrims stay and reside in Mina to complete the ritual of throwing pebbles.
 
Day of An-Nahr:
It is the first day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha, the 10th day of Thul-Hijjah. It was called as such because livestock animals are slaughtered on this day as an act of worship to Allah The Almighty.
 
Day of An-Nafr:
Nafr is derived from an Arabic root that means a group of people. The day that follows the day of Al-Qarr (the 11th of Thul-Hijjah) is called day of An-Nafr in which pilgrims proceed from Mina. It is also called the first day of An-Nafr (the 12th of Thul-Hijjah), whereas the second day of An-Nafr is the 13th of Thul-Hijjah, the last day of the days of Tashreeq.
 
Zamzam:
Zamzam is derived from an Arabic root that means to pull or fasten. Zamzam water means abundant water. Technically, Zamzam is a well-known water well in Makkah. The name is taken either due to its abundant water or this is the proper name of the well. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The water of Zamzam serves the purpose for which it was drunk."

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Hajj for Kids

Glossary of Hajj and Umrah terms

Abtah: A place formed after flood, which is usually level and containing no pebbles or stones. The term is given to every place that becomes leveled by a water stream. It is also Al-Abtah, Al-Bat-haa... More

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