In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
Almighty Allah Says (what means): "For the accustomed security of the Quraysh – Their accustomed security [in] the caravan of winter and summer – Let them worship the Lord of this House, Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger and made them safe, [saving them] from fear." [Quran: 106: 1-4]
Muhammad Ibn Is-haaq and `Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam said that this Quranic chapter is connected to the previous one, Al-Feel (The Elephant), because they both assert that Allah the Exalted protected Makkah from the elephant and destroyed the People of the Elephant for the accustomed security of Quraysh (the main Makkan tribe) and their community in their city, in safety.
It was also said that they were accustomed to travelling in caravans to Yemen in winter and to Syria in summer for trade and other purposes, and that they would return to their city in safety without hindrance because of their privileged status as the custodians of the Sacred House of Allah, and that whoever recognised them would respect them and travel with them in order to protect them. This was their situation, both in winter and in summer.
According to Imaam Ibn Jareer the correct explanation of this verse is that Allah is saying, in other words: "Be amazed at the taming of Quraysh and My Blessings upon them," because the consensus of Muslim opinion is that they are two separate Soorahs (Quranic chapters), independent of each other. Then Allah indicates to them the obligation of expressing thanks and gratitude to Him by worshipping Him Alone, Saying (what means): "Let them worship the Lord of this House." [Quran 106: 1-3]
That is, worship the One True Deity, Who has made their lives and their city safe and inviolate, as in the Words of Him, the Most High, which mean: "…I [Muhammad] have only been commanded to worship the Lord of this city, who made it sacred and to whom [belongs] all things. And I am commanded to be of the Muslims [i.e., those who submit to Allah]."[Quran27:91]
"Who has fed them, [saving them] from hunger…" [Meaning of the first part of verse 4 of the chapter] That is, He is the Lord of the House and it is He who has fed them against hunger.
"…And made them safe, [saving them] from fear." [Meaning of the second part of verse 4] Meaning that He has preferred them over other communities by granting them safety from fear, so let them then worship Him alone, without associating any partners with Him, without worshipping graven images or setting up equals to Him; and whoever responds positively to this command, Allah will grant him the best in this life and in the Hereafter, while whoever disobeys Him will receive neither, as Allah the Exalted Says (what means): "And Allah presents an example: a city [i.e., Makkah] which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favours of Allah. So Allah made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing. And there had certainly come to them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him; so punishment overtook them while they were wrongdoers." [Quran 16: 112-113]
Asmaa' Bint Yazeed may Allah be pleased with her said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Woe to you O Quraysh! For the accustomed security of Quraysh". [Ibn Abu Haatim]