Allah Says (what means): "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them. And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" [Quran 2: 30]
This verse clearly mentions the common origin of the universe, a fact that was not discovered until forty years ago with the advent of nuclear physics. The separation seems to refer to what scientists call the "Big Bang." Moreover, all living things are composed of protoplasm, which consists of 80 to 85 percent water.
It is also mentioned in the Quran (what means): "Then, He rose over towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: 'Come willingly or unwillingly.' They both said: 'We come willingly.'" [Quran 41:11]
The word ‘smoke’ describes accurately the primeval state of the universe, which was composed of a hot gaseous mass, with particles moving vigorously like smoke. From this the stars, planets and the earth were formed. The Quran says (what means): "With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof." [Quran 51:47] It is an accepted fact that we are living in an expanding universe.
The Quran says (what means): "It is not for the Sun to overtake the Moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit." [Quran 36:40]
The Arabic word referring to a movement with self-propelled motion is the verb Yasbahoon (in the Quranic text). It implies a motion that comes from the body in question. If it takes place in water, it means to swim; it refers to the action of one's own legs if it takes place on land. For movement that occurs in space, it would mean: "to rotate."
The Sun is actually in orbit, not around the earth but around the center of the galaxy, so there is no contradiction, since the Quran does not specify the Sun's orbit. The Quran says (what means): "He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night." [Quran 39:5] To coil or to wind is the translation of the Arabic verb Kawwaraa. The original meaning of the verb is to coil a turban around the head.
The process of perpetual coiling, including the interpenetration of one sector by another is expressed in the Quran, just as if the concept of the Earth's roundness had already been conceived at the time, which is clearly not the case.
The Quran says (what means): "It is He who made the Sun a shining thing and the Moon as a light, and measured out their stages…" [Quran 10:5] The Quran describes the Sun as ‘Siraaj’ which means a torch, generating its own heat and light, whereas the Moon is described ‘An-Noor’ which is light originating from another source.
The Quran says (what means): "Have We not made the earth as a bed; and the mountains as pegs?" [Quran 78:6-7]
And also (what means): “And Allah has cast into the ground, mountains standing firm so that it does not shake with you.” [Quran 31:10]
It has recently been discovered that mountains have roots that go into the earth's crust, which is composed of seven tectonic plates. Their movement is the cause of earthquakes. It is thought that the roots and weight of the mountains play a vital role in stabilizing the earth's crust.
4.The Water Cycle:
The Quran correctly describes the water cycle, and the origin of underground springs as being from rainwater. Obvious you may think, but the Greek philosophers did not get it right, suggesting that underground springs were produced by sea spray collecting in caves, which fed a great underground sea through the 'abyss'! In fact, the water cycle was not accurately propounded until the 18th century CE. The Quran, however, states (what means): "Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky and makes it flow as springs (and rivers) in the earth?” [Quran 39:21]
These are a few of many statements and limited explanations of the statements contained in the Quran and traditions dealing with scientific subjects. The Quran is consistent with external realities, and it is also consistent internally. It is the nature of the works of men, be they scientists, philosophers, sages or mystics to contain inconsistencies and contradictions. This cannot be so with the Divine Revelation as the Quran states (what means): "Then do they not reflect upon the Quran? Had it been from other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction." [Quran 4:82]