What is the ruling on masturbation while fasting outside Ramadan? Shall one make up for such fasting?
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger.
Masturbation is prohibited regardless of whether the person is fasting or not.
One’s fasting becomes invalid if the act of masturbation causes seminal discharge. The opposite is also true; if ejaculation does not occur, fasting will remain valid. In Al-Mughni, Ibn Qudaamah says, “One is committing a sin if he masturbates with his hand. One’s fasting is not invalidated, however, unless one ejaculates. If he ejaculates, then the fasting is invalid.”
If a person commits masturbation while he is observing an obligatory fast outside Ramadan – such as the fasting of a day missed in Ramadan, a vowed fast, or expiatory fasting – then he has to make up the day.
Scholars disagree whether one has to make up the voluntary fasting that one breaks with masturbation.
According to Al-Mughni:
Whoever starts a voluntary fast and comes to break it does not have to make up for the fast, even though one is recommended to. Overall, whoever starts a voluntary fast must accomplish it, but he does not have to. If one breaks a voluntary fast, one does not have to make up such a fast. Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that they were fasting one day and came to break their fast. Ibn ‘Umar said, “This should be alright unless one is fasting a day missed in Ramadan or a vowed fast.”
Al-Mughni adds, “An-Nakha‘i, Abu Haneefah, and Malik said, ‘Once a person starts a fast, he has to complete it. He cannot break his fast unless he has a valid excuse for this. If he breaks his fasting without excuse, then he must make up for it.’”
To conclude, the one who masturbates while fasting outside Ramadan must first turn to Allah in repentance. If one was observing an obligatory fast, then he has to make up that day. If he was observing a voluntary fast, then he is recommended to make up for it.
Allah knows best.
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