All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
As far as we know, there is no particular mention of Allaah or supplication that is said during the Rak’ahs of Taraaweeh, so it is not permissible to say this supplication because in principle the matters of worship are restricted to what has religious evidence and it is not permissible to innovate any of it without religious evidence.
Aa’ishah narrated that the Prophet said: "Whoever introduces into this matter of ours [Islam] that which is not a part of it, it will be rejected." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
However, if one says this supplication sometimes during Taraweeh or after it without repeating this regularly, then this is permissible because its meaning is correct.
Allaah Knows best.