All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
First of all, you should know that making up missed prayers that one has deliberately abandoned is a controversial issue among the scholars . Nonetheless, in order to be on the safe side, it is better for a Muslim to make up the missed prayer even if he deliberately abandoned them.
However, if he makes them up, he should perform them in a valid way and he should not miss out any of its pillars and conditions due to being great in number.
As regards other issues that you mentioned, most of them are acceptable as the Basmalah [i.e. saying Bismillaah] is not a verse of Al-Faatihah (the opening Chapter of the Quran) according to the view of the majority of the scholars, so it is permissible not to recite the Basmalah according to this opinion although it is better to recite it in order to be on the safe side and avoid the difference of opinion.
As regards reciting a Surah [Chapter] after Al-Faatihah, it is desirable and not an obligation. So, it is possible not to recite a Surah [after Al-Faatihah] in principle, especially if the missed prayers are so many. Besides, saying only “Subhaana Rabbiya Al A’theem” once in Rukoo’ and “Subhaana Rabbiya Al’A’la” once in Sujood, is permissible as well, and by doing so, the obligatory Tasbeeh is achieved according to the scholars who are of the view that saying Tasbeeh in Rukoo’ and Sujood is obligatory. This applies to the obligatory prayers which are prayed in their due time or the missed prayers, whether the missed prayers are few or so many.
The same thing applies to saying “Allahumma Salli A’la Muhammad” as this is sufficient and by saying it the obligatory part of exalting the mention of the Prophet is achieved.
Concerning the supplication after Tashahhud, it is a Sunnah according to the view of the majority of the scholars and if one does not say it, his prayer is not invalidated.
With regard to the Witr prayer, it is a Sunnah and there is a difference of opinion about the legitimacy of making it up if one had missed it.
Also, there is a difference of opinion about the Qunoot supplication and there is no sin on whoever does not say it.
As regards saying “Subhaanallaah” instead of reciting Al-Faatihah in some Rak’ahs of the prayer, then this is not permissible at all, because the recitation of Al-Faatihah is a pillar in every Rak’ah of the prayer and the prayer is void without reciting it according to the view of the majority of the scholars .
Allaah Knows best.