All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
You might not be able to find a book that will meet all the requirements that you mentioned in your question, and a student of knowledge does not manage with one book without needing another book; indeed, each book has its own advantages. In fact, many books by early writers who wrote about Usool Al-Fiqh (the Principles of Fiqh) include discussions based on ‘Ilm Al-Kalaam (scholastic theology), but these discussions, although not without some benefits, give the books a kind of complexity and difficulty in terms of the language.
Among the contemporary available books which we have come across, and which are somehow comprehensive with easy language, in addition to stating the evidence and examples of the branches based on those principles, is the book entitled Tayseer ‘Ilm Usool Al-Fiqh authored by Shaykh Abdullaah Al-Judayi'. This is available in three volumes and these can be found in the electronic encyclopedia called Al-Maktabah Ash-Shaamilah (The Comprehensive Library). So, the student of knowledge may consider this book as the basis for him in this science. Afterwards, he may consult other books of the scholars in order to understand an expression more or find something that is not mentioned in the above book and so forth.
As regards the books you inquired about, we have not come across the last two books that you mentioned. As for the book authored by Imaam Al-Ghazaali, entitled Al-Mustasfa and the book authored by Al-Jassaas entitled Al-Fusool fi Al-Usool, they are two good books and they concentrate on mentioning the statements and evidence and they discuss them, but you may not find in them all the branches that are based on these principles. So, you may get this from the mentioned book of At-Taftaazaani, which is entitled Miftaah Al-Wusool fi Binaa’ Al-Furoo' ‘ala Al-Usool, and other similar books.
Finally, you should know that the seeker of knowledge does not dispense with speaking with the scholars and sitting in their meetings, so you should be keen on doing so as much as possible.
May Allaah enable you to do whatever He likes and He is pleased with, and bless you with beneficial knowledge and enable you to do righteous deeds as He listens to the supplication and He responds to it.
Allaah Knows best.