All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
First of all, you should know that the parents are not obliged to offer gifts to their children when they get married. If they do, then it is commendable of them, especially if it is customary to do so. This is because such an act would please the children and bring happiness to their hearts.
If your father took this jewelry from you without your consent, then this is a prohibited action as per the Sharee‘ah. It is impermissible for a father to take something from his child’s wealth except within narrow limits and provided that certain guidelines are observed. These guidelines were clarified by scholars when explaining the Hadeeth: “You and your property belong to your father.” [Ibn Maajah]
If he deceived you to take this jewelry from you, then deception is forbidden, and it is a kind of cheating. It was authentically narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said: “He who cheats us is not one of us.” [Muslim]
You have the right to demand your property from him, provided that you adhere to the Sharee‘ah etiquettes (in dealing with parents) and that you do not harm him in words or actions. An example of harm is what you mentioned, that you told him that you do not want a deceiving father like him. This falls into the category of undutifulness towards parents, and it is incumbent on you to repent of it.
Allah Knows best.