Prophet Site > Lessons from his life >

Lessons from the incident of slander and the Battle of Banu Al-Mustaliq

Tuesday 18/05/2010

 

1-    The human side of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention )
 
There was a Divine rationale behind the trial of the Slander, which was to shed light on the personality of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and showing it in a pure way, distinct from any possible confusion. If the revelation was an intrapersonal affair, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), would not have spent a full month suffering from all the dimensions of this trial. The fact that was clear to all through this trial was that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was a human being as well as a prophet.
 
When the Divine Revelation put a decisive end to the false allegations against ‘Aa‘ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, the relationship between the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, returned to normal and everyone was happy to see the end of this harsh suffering. This proves the truthfulness of the revelation, because if it had not been from Allah The Almighty, the traces of the trial would have remained, especially in the soul of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). In such a case, this would have been reflected in his behavior with ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her. Thus, Allah The Exalted wanted this trial to be a great evidence of the Prophethood of Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ).
 
2-    The penalty of Slander and its importance in preserving the honor of Muslims
 
The Muslim society was being educated through events. Thus, when the Slander affair took place, Allah The Almighty wanted to legislate rulings that contribute to the protection of the honor and reputation of believing women. Therefore, the Soorah of An-Noor was revealed stating the ruling on the adulterer and the adulteress and the ugliness of the crimes of adultery and fornication. The Soorah also stated what the ruler should do when a husband accuses his wife of adultery in addition to stating the punishment of those who accuse chaste women of adultery and then do not provide four witnesses.
 
Indeed, Islam prohibited adultery and prescribed a corporal punishment against whoever commits it, as well as prohibiting all the steps and causes that may lead to it, including the act of spreading immorality and false accusations of adultery. This was done to purify society from the spread of the terms and language related to immorality and adultery. That is because excessive talk about adultery and the ease of talking about it somehow makes it less grave to the listener and encourages people with weak souls to dare to commit it. That is why the Islamic Sharee‘ah prohibits any false accusation of adultery and prescribes an eighty-lash penalty against whoever falsely accuses a chaste man or woman or an innocent man or woman of adultery. Moreover, such a person’s testimony is not accepted until he sincerely repents to Allah The Almighty.
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), executed the prescribed punishment for false accusation of adultery against Mistah, Hassaan and Hamnah. Muhammad bin Is’haaq  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him and others narrated that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), lashed two men and a woman: Mistah, Hassaan and Hamnah because of the Slander affair. This was also mentioned by At-Tirmithi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him.
 
Al-Qurtubi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him mentioned that it is widely known among the scholars that those who were lashed were Hassaan, Mistah and Hamnah. He added that it was not reported that ‘Abdullaah bin Ubayy was lashed. There are weak traditions stating that ‘Abdullaah bin Ubayy was lashed, but they are too weak to be used as evidence.
 
Ibn Al-Qayyim  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him mentioned the rationale behind refraining from executing the punishment of false accusation of adultery against ‘Abdullaah bin Ubayy, saying,
 
A-   It was said that he was not lashed because execution of the prescribed punishments alleviates and expiates sins while this malicious person did not deserve this. Allah The Exalted promised him a severe punishment and torment in the Hereafter, and that is enough.
B-   It was said that he would listen to the [slanderous] conversations, gather them and then relay them in such a way that they appeared to have nothing to do with him.
C-   It was said that the prescribed punishment could only be proved through either of two ways: confession or evidence. In the case in question, Ibn Ubayy did not confess and no one testified against him because he would only mention what he did among his companions rather than among the believers, and they (his companions) did not testify against him.
D- It was said that he was not lashed because refraining from lashing him was more beneficial than executing the prescribed punishment against him. Similarly, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) refrained from killing him despite his open hypocrisy and repeated sayings that made him deserve to be punished by death. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) refrained from killing him so as to endear Islam to his people and avoid making them hate Islam or detest it.
 
At the end, of the passage, Ibn Al-Qayyim  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “Perhaps he [Ibn Ubayy] was not punished for all of these reasons.”
 
3-    Hassaan’s apology to ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her
 
Narrations mentioned that all of those who were involved in the Slander affair repented with the exception of Ibn Ubayy. Hassaan, may Allah be pleased with him, apologized for what he had said and composed a poem praising ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her.
 
4-    Some of the rulings that are extracted from the Battle of Banu Al-Mustaliq:
 
-      The permissibility of raiding those whom the call of Islam has reached without prior warning.
-      The validity of considering the emancipation of a slave girl as a dowry, as the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), did with Juwayriyah bint Al-Haarith, may Allah be pleased with her, during this battle.
-      The lawfulness of drawing lots between a man’s wives if he wishes to take one or more of them along when he travels.
-      The permissibility of enslaving Arabs, as what happened in this battle, and this is the opinion of the majority of scholars.
-      Scholars unanimously agreed that whoever slanders ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, accusing her of adultery after the decisive declaration of her innocence in the Quran is a disbeliever because he contests the Quran.
-      During this battle, the Companions asked the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), about the ruling of coitus interruptus and he allowed them to do this, saying:“It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.”The majority of scholars are of the opinion that coitus interruptus is permissible with one’s wife with her permission.
-      The verse of Tayammum (dry ablution) was revealed during this battle, stating the importance of prayer and drawing attention to its great status. The absence of water, which is the means of purification (and purification being the major condition of prayer), does not prevent one from performing it. Similarly, fear and lack of security does not prevent a person from performing it.

Related Articles

All rights reserved to IslamWeb. © 2011