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The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and Its Terms I

Friday 05/06/2009

While the Muslims were in Madeenah, they were yearning for Makkah, from which they had been unjustly expelled. They were looking forward to the day when they would have the chance to return to Makkah and circumambulate the Ka‘bah. The day came when the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), told his Companions that he had a vision where he saw himself entering Makkah and circumambulating the Ka’bah. The Muslims were overjoyed to hear this for they knew that the visions of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), were true, and so they started to prepare for this journey.

One Monday, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), went out to perform ‘Umrah accompanied by one thousand four hundred of his Companions. They took only the weapons necessary for traveling and entered, while in the state of ritual consecration, Thul-Hulayfah. When they approached Makkah they learnt that the Quraysh had mobilized its army to fight them and prevent them from reaching the Sacred House. When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), reached Al-Hudaybiyyah, he sent ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, to Quraysh and said to him: “Tell them that we have not come to fight. Rather, we simply wish to perform ‘Umrah, then call them to Islam.”The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), ordered him to go to some of the believers, men and women, who were still in Makkah and inform them of the glad tidings of the Makkan conquest and that Allah would manifest His religion in Makkah. Thus, ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, passed by Quraysh, and when they asked him where he was going, he said, “The Prophet sent me to call you to Allah and to Islam and to tell you that he did not come to fight you. Rather, he has come only to perform ‘Umrah.” They said: “We have heard what you said, so proceed.” The Quraysh then detained ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, and the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was very concerned about him, especially as there were rumors that he was killed. At this point, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), called Muslims for a pledge of allegiance and they hastened to him and pledged allegiance to him under a tree that they would not flee. This was the famous Ar-Radhwaan Pledge of Allegiance in regards to which Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree.}[Quran 48:18]
 
Quraysh sent ‘Urwah ibn Mas‘ood to the Muslims. When he returned to Quraysh he said: “O people, by Allah I was sent before to kings: Casroes, Caesar and the Negus, but I have never seen a king so glorified by his people as Muhammad. By Allah, his Companions were even keen on taking his mucus and rubbing their faces and skin with it. Once he gives an order they hasten to fulfill it, and when he performs ablution they fight over the water he has used. When he speaks their voices are hushed, and they lower their gaze in his presence out of reverence for him.” Then he said, “He has made you a good offer, so accept it.”
 
Quraysh then hurried and sent Suhayl ibn ‘Amr to make reconciliation. When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), saw him coming, he remarked: “Things are going to be easy. Quraysh wants reconciliation and that is why they have sent this man.” Suhayl came and they discussed at length. Then they agreed on the following four terms:
  • The first was that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and his Companions should return to Madeenah without having entered Makkah. In the following year, they may come with travelers’ weapons and stay for only three days.
  • The second was that there would be a truce between both parties for ten years, during which people could live safely.
  • The third was that whoever wished to enter a covenant with Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), would be allowed to do so, and whoever wished to enter into a covenant with Quraysh would be allowed to do so.
  • The fourth was that if a person from Quraysh came to Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), without the permission of his guardian, Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), should send him back, but if one of the followers of Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), went to Quraysh he would not be returned.
Then the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), ordered that this agreement be written down, so he called his scribe, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib, may Allah be pleased with him, and asked him to write: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Ever Merciful.”However, Suhayl remarked: “I do not know who is the Most Merciful. Therefore write, ‘In the Name of Allah’, just as we used to write it.” The Muslims insisted that they should write what the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), had asked for, but he,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), agreed that he would write “In the Name of Allah.” Then he  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “Write: ‘This is what Muhammad the Messenger of Allah has agreed upon.’”Suhayl remarked, “By Allah, if we knew that you were the Messenger of Allah we would not have prevented you from entering the Sacred House! So write Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullaah.” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “I am the Messenger of Allah, even if you deny this. Alright! Write Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullaah.” The terms of the treaty were thus finalized and the tribe of Khuzaa‘ah entered into the covenant of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), while the tribe of Banu Bakr entered into the covenant of Quraysh.
 
Right then, Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl came from Makkah wearing handcuffs and iron chains on his legs and threw himself in front of the Muslims. Suhayl said, “O Muhammad, this is the first one I ask you to return - as we agreed.” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), replied: “We have not yet finished writing the agreement!”Suhayl said, “Then I swear by Allah that I will not sign any agreements with you.” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), asked Suhayl to give him permission to take the man but he refused. Abu Jandal then said: “O Muslims! How can you return me to the disbelievers after I have come to you as a Muslim? Can you not see the torture that I have been subjected to?” He had indeed been severely tortured.

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and Its Terms – II

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