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Rulings and Etiquettes of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha - I

'Eed Al-Adh-ha is one of festivals of the Muslims. It occurs during the first ten days of the month of Thul-Hijjah, which are the very best days of the year, according to some scholars. Jaabir, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The best days ever of this worldly life are the ten days (of Thul-Hijjah).” [Al-Bazzaar] [Al-Albaani: Saheeh]

The day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha is the best day in the Sight of Allah The Almighty. It was narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The greatest day in the Sight of Allah is the Day of Nahr (the first day of ‘Eed) and then the Day of Qarr (the 11th day of Thul-Hijjah when the pilgrims settle in Mina).” [Abu Daawood, At-Tirmithi, An-Nasaa’i and Ibn Maajah]

It was also narrated that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The Day of ‘Arafah, the Day of Nahr and the Days of Mina (i.e., the Days of Tashreeq) are days of festivity for us, Muslims. They are days for eating, drinking and remembering Allah.” [Abu Daawood, At-Tirmithi, An-Nasaa’i and Ibn Maajah] [At-Tirmithi: Saheeh]

There are many rulings and etiquettes relevant to ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha, the most important of which are:

1) Repeating Takbeer starts from the night of ‘Eed, and lasts throughout the Days of Tashreeq and ends with the sunset of the 14th of Thul-Hijjah. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days….} [Quran 2:203]

In Al-Fataawa, Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said,

Scholars unanimously agree that Takbeer is prescribed on the Day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha […] Takbeer on the Days of Nahr (slaughtering) is stressed in terms that it is prescribed next to prayers, according to the consensus of scholars. ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha is a blessed day because pilgrims receive the honor of the place as well as that of time. ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha is better than ‘Eed Al-Fitr, since people offer the prayer first and then slaughter. As for slaughtering, it is prescribed on the Day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha as an independent act of worship, which is performed after the prayer. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {So pray to your Lord and sacrifice [to Him alone]. Indeed, your enemy is the one cut off.} [Quran 108:2-3]

People's prayer in their countries resembles throwing the pebbles by pilgrims and their slaughtering resembles slaughtering the Hady (sacrificial animal) by pilgrims. Thus, the sound opinion is that people who are not performing Hajj should start Takbeer from the dawn of the Day of ‘Arafah until the end of the Days of Tashreeq. This is supported by the aforesaid Hadeeth as well as another Hadeeth narrated by Ad-Daaraqutni, may Allaah have mercy upon him, on the authority of Jaabir, may Allaah be pleased with him, from the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It is also a consensus by senior Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them. Allah Knows best.

The manner of Takbeer is to say: “Allahu Akbar (Allah is The Greatest), Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La Ilaaha Illallaah (None is worthy of worship except Allah), wa Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, wa Lillaahil-Hamd (Praise is due to Allah).” ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha is one of the Muslims' festivals. It occurs during the first ten days of the month of Thul-Hijjah, which are the very best days of the year, according to some scholars.

2) Ruling on the ‘Eed Prayer: The Hanbali scholars, may Allaah have mercy upon them, are of the opinion that the ‘Eed Prayer is a communal obligation. Maalik and Ash-Shaafi‘i, may Allaah have mercy upon them, are of the opinion that the ‘Eed Prayer is recommended. Abu Haneefah and many of the competent researching scholars, such as Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah and his student Ibn Al-Qayyim as well as some of the contemporary scholars, such as Ibn Sa‘di, Ibn Baaz and Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, may Allaah have mercy upon them, are of the opinion that the ‘Eed Prayer is obligatory, because the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, performed it and ordered women, young unmarried virgins and the mature people who often stay screened to perform it.

It was narrated on the authority of Umm ‘Atiyyah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said,

The Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, commanded us to take them (women) out on the occasions of both ‘Eeds of Al-Fitr and Al-Adh-ha the young unmarried virgins, the women who were menstruating and the mature people who often stay screened. The menstruating women should keep away from prayer, but should attend the good and supplication of Muslims. I said, 'O Messenger of Allah! One of us might have no Jilbaab (outer garment).' On that, he said, 'Let her sister dress her from her Jilbaab.’” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]

The Imam leads people in the ‘Eed Prayer which consists of two Rak‘ahs and then delivers two Khutbahs (sermons). It is recommended to perform the prayer early when the sun rises. Yazeed ibn Khumayr narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn Busr, may Allaah be pleased with him, the Companion of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, came out along with people on the Day of ‘Eed Al-Fitr or ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha. He disliked the delay of the Imam, and said, “We used to finish (our ‘Eed Prayer) at this moment, that is, at the time of forenoon.” [Abu Daawood and Ahmad]

3) It is prohibited to fast the Day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha. This is based on the Marfoo‘ Hadeeth narrated on the authority of Abu Sa‘eed Al-Khudri, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, forbade fasting of two days: the Day of ‘Eed Al-Fitr and the Day of Nahr (‘Eed Al-Adh-ha). [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]

The prohibition of fasting the Days of Tashreeq is based on the Hadeeth narrated on the authority of Nubayshah Al-Huthali, may Allaah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The Days of Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah The Almighty.” [Muslim]

It was narrated on the authority of ‘Aa’ishah and Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them, that they said, “Fasting the Days of Tashreeq is permissible only for the pilgrim who does not find the Hady (sacrificial animal).” [Al-Bukhaari]

4) The best deeds of the Day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha is performing the prayer and then slaughtering: The Muslim starts this day with prayer before doing anything else and then slaughters. In his collection of Hadeeth, Al-Bukhaari, may Allaah have mercy upon him, entitled a chapter: "The recommended acts of the two ‘Eeds for Muslims," and then he reported the Hadeeth narrated on the authority of Al-Baraa’, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said, “I heard the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, delivering a Khutbah and saying: 'The first thing we do on that day is to perform the prayer and then return to slaughter. Whoever does so, is in compliance with our Sunnah (way).’” [Al-Bukhaari]

The Hanbali scholars, may Allaah have mercy upon them, are of the opinion that the ‘Eed Prayer is a communal obligation. Maalik and Ash-Shaafi‘i, may Allaah have mercy upon them, are of the opinion that the ‘Eed Prayer is recommended.

5) It is recommended on the Day of ‘Eed that the Muslim beautifies himself and wears his best clothes. The woman, on the other hand, goes to the ‘Eed Prayer neither beautified, nor perfumed, nor negligent of the Sharee‘ah-approved Hijaab nor with her face uncovered, since she is commanded to veil her body, conceal her adornment and not to go out perfumed.

Rulings and Etiquettes of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha - II

Tuesday 11/10/2011

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