Selection for caliphate, 24 AH
'Umar was asked before his death to nominate his successor as Abu Bakr had done. 'Umar sent for ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf, Sa’ad bin
After the demise of 'Umar Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad and Abu Talhah appointed Suhayb as acting Caliph and Imam for three days as per the will left by 'Umar. Afterwards, they contacted 'Ali, 'Uthmaan, Az-Zubayr, Sa’ad, ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf and 'Abdullah bin 'Umar, and assembled them in the house of Miswar bin Makhramah, or according to other accounts, in the house of 'Aa’ishah . Talhah was still out of Al-Madeenah. When all the members arrived, ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf got up and said: "Who among those nominated for the Caliphate withdraws his name so that he may be given power to appoint the most excellent and suitable among you as Caliph?" All the persons present kept silent. After a while he announced: "I give up my candidacy and I am ready to perform the duty of appointing a Caliph." All of them agreed to it and empowered him to appoint the Caliph. However, 'Ali kept silent. When ’Abdur-Rahman asked him about his silence, he said: "I agree with the opinion of other members, but, you must first promise to make your decision without any favor and personal involvement and do it with an eye on the truth and for the welfare of the whole Ummah."
’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf said: "I give my word that I will do it without showing any favor to anyone and without any personal involvement just for the sake of truth and for the welfare of the Ummah. But all of you should also promise to agree to the one I choose for the post, and you will rise against the one who disagrees with me." Having heard this, 'Ali and all those present said with one voice: "We will all lend support to your choice and help you in its enforcement."
With this promise on both sides, the session was over and the members went home and waited for three days for the final verdict. During this period, ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf kept meeting men of sound judgment and discussing the issue with them. He says that when he said to 'Uthman in private; "In case I fail to pledge allegiance to you, to whom will you suggest to do this?" He replied: "You should pledge allegiance to 'Ali." ’Abdur-Rahman then put the same question to 'Ali when he was alone, and he took the name of 'Uthman. ’Abdur-Rahman then asked Az-Zubayr to give his decision, he said: "Pledge your allegiance to either 'Uthman or 'Ali." He then referred the issue to Sa’ad in private, he took the name of 'Uthman. When he took the advice of other men of sound judgment, the majority appeared to be in favor of 'Uthman .
On the night before the day of announcing the decision, the members of the panel again assembled in the same house. ’Abdur-Rahmaan bin 'Awf called Az-Zubayr and Sa’ad separately and said: "Most of the people appear to be in favor of 'Uthman and 'Ali." They too favored them. ’Abdur-Rahman then talked to 'Uthman and 'Ali separately. The night ended and after the Fajr prayer the mosque was crowded with people, all of them were eagerly awaiting the announcement of ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf.
’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf got up and said addressing the audience: "I did all within my power to know the opinion of all the groups and classes of people and nobody is now to go against my decision. All the members of the consultative body and nominated panel have already conceded to my decision and I have spent all my power to arrive at this decision." Saying this he called 'Uthman and asked him to declare his resolve to follow the path shown by Allah and His Messenger, , and the Righteous Caliphs that passed away before him. 'Uthman declared that he would try his best to follow the commands of Allah and His Messenger , and follow the examples of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq and 'Umar . Following this, ’Abdur-Rahman bin 'Awf himself first pledged his allegiance to 'Uthman and others followed suit.
At the end of the Bay'ah (pledge of allegiance) session, 'Uthman bin 'Affan came to the pulpit and addressing the congregation asked them to follow the good deeds. He also asked them to fear the evil effects of abundant wealth and stressed keeping the Pleasure of Allah in view. After his preliminary address, he issued an order in the name of the governors and officers mentioning the demise of 'Umar and his own election as the Caliph of Islam. All of them were enjoined to work with honesty and in good faith.
The conquest of
Other than the conquest of
When the Muslims came to know of the Roman invasion, they came quickly from Fustat (
The conquest of
The Roman invasion of
Mu'awiyah the governor of
Habeeb bin Maslamah and Salman bin Rabee'ah jointly won
Events and changes in
'Abdullah bin Sa’ad was the foster brother of 'Uthman bin 'Affan. 'Uthman bin 'Affan sent him to
When the Caesar of Constantinople heard of the deposition of 'Amr bin Al-'Aas and the resulting uprisings in
'Amr bin Al-'Aas was again sent to Egypt as a governor who launched such a fierce attack at the Romans that they had to flee from Alexandria after sustaining heavy losses and a heavy toll on their soldiers.
Nevertheless, when peace and normalcy returned to the region and the administration was running smooth, 'Amr bin Al-'Aas was deposed once again and replaced by 'Abdullah bin Sa’ad. This time the Caliph’s decision made 'Abdullah bin Sa’ad feel uneasy and uncomfortable, because his efforts to uphold the deteriorating situation of the region the last time had met with utter failure. However, he was now anxious to make amends for his past failures.
To be continued