Bidding His Ummah Farewell - His Final Recommendations - II

Bidding His Ummah Farewell - His Final Recommendations - II
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5- His instructions to his Ummah on the second day of Tashreeq

 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), delivered a Khutbah on the twelfth of Thul-Hijjah, which is the second day of Tashreeq. It is called the day of Ru’oos (heads) because the people of Makkah would eat the heads of the sacrificed animals on this day. It is the middle day of the days of Tashreeq. In a Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Najeeh, may Allah be pleased with him, that was narrated on the authority of two men from Banu Bakr, they said, “We saw the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) delivering a Khutbah on the middle of the days of Tashreeq when we were staying near his mount. This was like his Khutbah at Mina.” [Abu Daawood (Al-Albaani: Saheeh)]
 
In a Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Nadhrah  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him he said that those who heard the Khutbah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), on the middle day of the days of Tashreeq told him that he said:
“O people, indeed your Lord is One and your father is one. Behold! No Arab is preferred to a non-Arab, and no non-Arab is preferred to an Arab, and no black is preferred to a red and no red is preferred to a black, except by virtue of piety. Have I conveyed [the message of Allah]?”The people said,“The Messenger of Allah has conveyed the message.” Then, he said: Which day is this?”They said, “This is a sacred day.”Then, he said:“Which month is this?”They replied, “This is a sacred month.”Then, he said:“Which land is this?” They replied, “This is a sacred land.” He said:“Indeed, Allah has made your blood, property and honor sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, of this month of yours and of this land of yours. Have I conveyed [the message]?”They said, “The Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) has conveyed [the message of Allah].” He said:The present should convey [it] to the absent. [Ahmad]
 
There are sentences from his Khutbahs at the sacred places during the farewell Hajj like what was mentioned in a Hadeeth on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with him, where he said that the Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), addressed people during the farewell Hajj and said: “The devil has despaired of ever being worshipped in this country of yours, but he is satisfied to be obeyed in other things which you consider of little importance. Beware of this! If you adhere to what I have left for you, you will never be astray: the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet…” [Muslim and Ahmad, Al-Albaani - Saheeh]
 
Another example is what was mentioned in a Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Umaamah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) saying while he was addressing people and riding his camel during the farewell Hajj:‘O people, obey your Lord, pray your five [obligatory] prayers, pay [the due] Zakah of property, fast your month [of Ramadan] and obey your ruler; [then] you will enter the Paradise of your Lord.’ [Al-Haakim and Ath-Thahabi]
                     
Summary: There are many lessons and benefits to be learned from this article, some of which are:
1-    All those who headed for Madeenah in response to the declaration of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), to perform Hajj performed it with the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) because Jaabir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “A large number of people came to Madeenah and they were all seeking to follow the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) and do whatever he would do.”  
2-    It is favorable for the pilgrim to head for ‘Arafaat after the sun passes the meridian if it is possible.
3-    It is recommended for the Imaam to deliver a Khutbah to the pilgrims on the day of ‘Arafaat clarifying for people what they require in terms of monotheism and the foundations of he religion, warning them against Shirk (polytheism), innovations in religion and sins, and advising people to adhere to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. It was proved that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), delivered three Khutbahs during the farewell Hajj: on the day of ‘Arafah, on the day of An-Nahr and one on the twelfth of Thul-Hijjah in Mina. According to the Shaafi‘i School of Fiqh, the Imaam should also deliver a Khutbah on the seventh of Thul-Hijjah and teach people in each Khutbah what they need until the following Khutbah.
4-    Stressing the grave inviolability of blood, honor, property and the prohibition of injuring Muslims.
5-    Giving examples and drawing similes, as the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), said: “…are sacred and inviolable like the sacredness of this day of yours, of this month of yours and of this land of yours...”  
6-    Abolishing the corrupt practices of Jaahiliyyah, the Riba of the pre-Islamic era and abolishing the legal retribution for those killed during the pre-Islamic era.
7-    The ruler and the one who enjoins good and forbids evil should start with themselves and their families because their words in this case are more likely to be accepted and the newly reverted Muslims would find it more appealing.
8-    The abolished Riba is the extra amount of money over and above the capital. However, the capital debt must be paid off to its owner.
9-    Taking care of women and living with them with kindness. There are many Hadeeths in this regard collected by An-Nawawi  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him and most of them are in his book Riyaadh As-Saaliheen.
10-    The obligation of providing the wife with financial support, clothing and the permissibility of disciplining her but within the conditions and regulations of Shareeah. There should be no evildoing done for the sake of such discipline.
11-   Advising people to adhere to the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ).
12-  His saying: “Learn your rituals from me, for I do notknow whether I will perform [another] Hajj after this one” indicates the obligation of learning the rituals including the words, deeds and actions that he did in Hajj. His followers should learn, memorize, apply and teach these rituals to others. This Hadeeth lays down a great principle in the rituals of Hajj. It is like his saying: “Pray in the same way that you see me pray.” [Al-Bukhari]
13- His saying: “Perhaps I will not perform Hajj [the following year] after this Hajj,” is an indication of his bidding them farewell, informing them about the closeness of his death and urging them to learn from him, seize the opportunity and adhere to him. Hence, it was called the Farewell Hajj.
14- Urging Muslims to convey and spread knowledge and that understanding is not a condition of performance. Perhaps someone may come who has more understanding than those who preceded him.
15-  It is recommended for the person who is delivering the Khutbah to be in a high place so that people could hear and see him clearly.
16- Using the the interrogative mode and following it with silence and explanation for the sake of emphasis, confirmation and calling attention.
17- Ordering Muslims to obey the ruler as long as he rules people according to the Book of Allah The Almighty. If he commits sins and evildoings, he should be admonished, reminded of Allah The Almighty and rebuked, but in a wise and kind way.
18- Ordering people to obey Allah The Almighty, perform the prayer, pay the Zakah (obligatory charity) and fast. Piety is the only criterion for the superiority of some people over others.
19- The clear miracle of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) which proves his truthfulness, which is when the people heard him on the day of An-Nahr while they were in their homes. Allah The Almighty enabled them to hear him.
20- The sacrificing of an animal is a confirmed act of the Sunnah according to the sound opinion of scholars. The pilgrim and non-pilgrim should offer it and offering the Hadi (the sacrificial animal given at Hajj) does not serve as a substitute for it; rather, it is an independent act of the Sunnah. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), slaughtered two black and white rams. This was in addition to the Hadi, which he slaughtered and made ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, slaughter the rest of them.

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) Bidding his Ummah Farewell and his Final Recommendations-I

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