The wisdom and forbearance behind the treaty of Hudaybiyyah:
The Quraish sent another envoy called Suhayl ibn 'Amr. When the Prophet, , saw him coming, he remarked: "It is clear that they want peace since they have sent this man" and told his Companions to prepare a draft agreement. He called 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and told him: "Write: 'In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.'"
Suhayl objected at once, saying, "By Allah, we do not know who this 'Merciful' is. Rather write: 'In Your name, O Allah' as you used to write." This kindled the fury of the Muslims, who said, "By Allah, we will only write: 'In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.'" The Prophet, , said: "Write: 'In Your name, O Allah.'"
Then he said: "Write: 'This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah has agreed.'" "By Allah," began Suhayl, "if we accepted that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have prevented you from reaching the House of Allah nor fought you. Rather write, "Muhammad ibn 'Abdullaah."'
The Prophet, , said calmly: "I am the Messenger of Allah, even though you do not believe me. Write: 'Muhammad ibn Abdullah.'" He asked 'Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, to erase what he had written but when he refused to do so, the Prophet, , erased it himself. Then he, , said: "This is what the Messenger of Allah agrees, provided that you give us leave to perform Tawaaf of the Ka'bah."
Suhayl objected again, and said that the Muslims would only be allowed to come the following year, and added, "…if any of our men, even if he has your religion, comes to you, you will return him to us." The Muslims cried, "Glory be to Allah! How can we return someone to the idol-worshippers after he has become a Muslim?" Meanwhile, Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl arrived on the scene, shackled and bruised, having escaped from his tormentors in Makkah. Suhayl looked at his son and said coolly, "Muhammad, here is the first man that you have to return under this treaty." The Prophet, replied: "We have not finished the document yet." "Then, by Allah, I will never agree to anything," saidSuhayl.
"O Muslims!" cried Abu Jandal, "Am I to be returned to the idol-worshippers when I have come to you as a Muslim? Do you not see what I have suffered?" Abu Jandal had been severely tortured and, at this difficult time, his plea was heartrending. However, the Prophet, , had to return him as his father demanded.
The two parties agreed to abandon war for ten years, during which each side would be safe and would not attack the other. Whoever came to the Prophet, , from the Quraish without obtaining the permission of his guardian would be returned to them, but whoever came to the Quraish from those with the Prophet, , would not be returned to the Muslims. Whoever wanted to enter into an alliance and agreement with the Prophet, , could do so and whoever wanted to enter into an alliance and agreement with the Quraish would also be free to do so.
Learning to endure trials with patience:
The Muslims were distressed and dissatisfied with the terms of the truce. 'Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with him, asked Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, angrily, "Did not the Messenger of Allah say to us that we were going to go to the Ka'bah and perform Tawaaf?" "Yes," repliedAbu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, "But did he tell you that it was going to be this very year!" 'Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, agreed this was not the case. Then Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, reassured him, "You will go there and you will do Tawaaf."
After the treaty had been drawn up, the Prophet, , sacrificed a camel, then shaved his head. This was a difficult time for the Muslims because they had been looking forward to 'Umrah and were very disappointed. However, they still followed the Prophet's example.