· Madeenah:This is the city of the Prophet, . Prior to the Hijrah (migration), it was known as Yathrib, but the Prophet, , changed its name to Madeenah. Moreover, he, , enjoined the Muslims not to call it Yathrib again. The Muslims named it Al-Madeenah Al-Munawwarah (The Enlightened City), in order to distinguish it from other cities.
The Prophet, , migrated to Madeenah, and those who lived there gave him a warm, welcoming reception. Immediately after reaching Madeenah, the Prophet, , started to organize the aspects of life there. First, he built a mosque to gather people for Salah (prayer), teach them, and enable them to consult each other on their affairs. Then, he made a tie of fraternity between the Al-Muhaajiroon (the Emigrants) and the Ansaar (the Helpers, who were the original residents of Madeenah). The Prophet, , stayed in Madeenah for ten years where he shouldered the responsibilities of the Islamic call, organized people's lives, sent regiments to defend the city, and sent messengers and ambassadors to the kings all over the world to call them to embrace the new religion.
One of the most important events that happened in Madeenah during the lifetime of the Prophet, , was the digging of the trench around it before the Battle of the Trench. This was the suggestion of the Companion Salmaan Al-Faarisi, may Allah be pleased with him. In the year 5 A.H., Madeenah was exposed to an attack from the Quraysh polytheists, some of their allies, and the Jews. These allied forces, known as the “Ahzaab”, were surprised to see the trench, which defended Madeenah and rendered them unable to penetrate it. The attack ended with the Muslims' victory, after Allah The Almighty sent a stormy wind on the allies. The Ahzaab were obliged to abandon their siege of Madeenah and return to Makkah.
The Prophet, , died and he was buried in Madeenah. Later, Abu Bakr As-Siddeeqand `Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with them both, were buried next to him.
· Uhud:This is one of the most famous mountains in Islamic history. It lies near Madeenah and the Battle of Uhud took place near it in the year 3 A.H.
After their defeat in the Battle of Badr, the Quraysh were furious and decided to avenge this defeat. So, three thousand fighters marched towards Madeenah to attack it and fight the Prophet, . In Shawwaal, they reached Madeenah and the army camped near mount Uhud. Commanding seven hundred noble Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, the Prophet, , prepared a masterly plan and marched to confront them.
The Muslims implemented this plan in the beginning of the combat until they attained victory and the polytheists fled. Some of the Muslims who were supposed to protect the rear of the Muslim armt thought that they had attained victory, and so they left the positions assigned to them by the Prophet, . When they started collecting the spoils of war, the polytheists seized the opportunity and came back under the command of Khaalid ibn Al-Waleed, who had not yet embraced Islam and attacked the rear of the Muslim army. The Muslims' rows were in chaos and the whole army was in trouble. Many of the fighters fled from the battlefield. Only the Prophet, , and some Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, remained steadfast and they managed to keep off the attack. The polytheists were satisfied with what they had achieved and returned to Makkah.
At the same place, the martyrs of the Muslim army were buried, the foremost of whom were Hamzah, the uncle of the Prophet, , andMus`ab ibn `Umayr, the first ambassador in Islam, may Allah be pleased with them. The Prophet, , used to say about Mount Uhud: “This mountain loves us and we love it.”
· Tabook:This is a city in northern Hijaaz, more than 1000 kilometers from Madeenah. This city witnessed the last and largest expedition commanded by the Prophet, , in the year 9 A.H., with an army of thirty thousand soldiers. The Prophet, , prepared this army during extremely hard conditions. Thus, the army was called the "Army of Hardship", because the distance was far away and it was extremely hot.
The Prophet, , stayed in Tabook for three weeks in which he organized the affairs of the region and concluded treaties with some emirates that were pro-Roman allies. After that, he returned to Madeenah to receive delegations of the Arab tribes, who came to him, , to declare their Islam.