As soon as the Muslims settled in Madeenah under the leadership of the Messenger of Allah and as soon as the believing group was established in the new community, it was necessary for the Muslims and their leadership to be alert to the situation around them and the attitude of their enemies - the enemies of the Islamic Da‘wah (call). It was also necessary for the Islamic Da‘wah to achieve its end for which Allah The Almighty sent Muhammad and he as well as his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, experienced much hardship for its sake.
Important Military missions Before the Battle of Badr - I
- Publish date:30/03/2010
The attitude of the Quraysh in Makkah was one of the most important things that had to be treated by the leadership of Madeenah. That is because the people of Makkah would not allow the establishment of an Islamic entity, even if it was in Madeenah. This matter threatened their entity and dented their construction. They knew that the establishment of Islam meant the eradication of ignorance as well as their fathers’ and forefathers' traditions. Consequently, it was absolutely necessary to confront the new Islamic entity.
Makkah and its people attempted to prevent the Prophet from reaching Madeenah and adopted hostile attitudes in order to destroy Islam and Muslims. This hostility remained after the Hijrah (emigration) of the Prophet . From the most important incidents indicating this was what was transmitted by ‘Abdullaah bin Mas‘ood, may Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of Sa‘d bin Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said
Sa‘d bin Mu‘aadh was a close friend of Umayyah bin Khalaf. Whenever Umayyah passed through Madeenah, he would stay with Sa‘d and whenever Sa‘d went to Makkah, he would stay with Umayyah. When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Madeenah, Sa‘d went to perform ‘Umrah and stayed at Umayyah's home in Makkah. He said to Umayyah, “Tell me of a time when the Ka‘bah is empty so that I may be able to circumambulate it.” So Umayyah went with him about midday. Abu Jahl met them and said, “O Abu Safwaan, who is this man accompanying you?” He replied, “He is Sa‘d.” Abu Jahl addressed Sa‘d saying, “I see you wandering about safely in Makkah in spite of the fact that you have given shelter to the embracers of the new religion [Muslims], and have claimed that you will help and support them. By Allah, if you were not in the company of Abu Safwaan, you would not be returning to your family safely.” Sa‘d, raising his voice, said to him, “By Allah, if you should stop me from circumambulating the Ka‘bah, I would certainly prevent you from something which is more valuable for you, that is, your passage through Madeenah.” [Al-Bukhari]
According to the wording of another narration of this incident, Sa‘d, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “By Allah, if you should stop me from circumambulating the Ka‘bah, I would certainly prevent you from what is more important to you than this, the way of your trade to Ash-Shaam [greater Syria].” [Al-Bayhaqi]
This incident indicates that Abu Jahl considered Sa‘d bin Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, an enemy of the Quraysh. Had he not entered Makkah under the protection of one of the Makkan chiefs, he would have killed him. This was new behavior on the part of the Makkan chiefs towards the people of Madeenah, and it did not occur before the establishment of the Islamic state therein. None of the people of Madeenah needed to seek the protection of any person in order to enter Makkah. Even, Quraysh hated to think in terms of war among them and the people of Madeenah before the new situation.
Addressing the people of Madeenah, in this respect they would say what reads: “By Allah, there is not an Arab tribe that we hate more to engage in fighting with than you.”
This story also indicates that the commercial caravans of the Quraysh on their way to Ash-Shaam were safe until the occurrence of such an incident. Before that, the Muslim state did not afflict harm on them. In other words, until that time the Muslim state did not treat the people of Makkah according to the treatment of war. The Muslims neither imposed an economic siege on them, nor confiscated any caravan from them nor intended them any evil.
This means that the Makkan chiefs took the initiative and declared war on the Muslim state in Madeenah, and considered the Muslims as enemies of war who could not enter Makkah unless they were under someone’s protection.
Here is further evidence that the Makkan chiefs took the initiative in declaring a state of war against the Muslims’ state in Madeenah: ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Ka‘b bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, reported on the authority of a man from among the Companions of the Prophet
The disbelievers of the Quraysh wrote a letter to Ibn Ubayy and to those who worshipped idols from the Aws and the Khazraj, while the Messenger of Allah was at that time in Madeenah, and this was before the battle of Badr. The letter read: “You have given protection to our companion. We swear by Allah that you should fight him or expel him, or we shall come to you in full force, until we kill your fighters and appropriate your women.” When this [news] reached ‘Abdullaah bin Ubayy and those who were worshipping idols, they gathered to fight the Messenger of Allah . When this news reached the Messenger of Allah he visited them and said: “The threat of the Quraysh to you has reached its end. They cannot contrive a plot against you greater than what you yourselves have intended in order to harm yourselves. Are you willing to fight your own sons and brothers?” When they heard this from the Prophet they scattered. [Abu Daawood in his Sunan]
Here the greatness of brotherhood as well as the leader and the nurturer manifested as he eradicated that temptation at its very beginning and struck the correct note of tribal enthusiasm. The Prophet realized the secrets of the human self that he was dealing with, and therefore his address influenced the souls of the polytheists of Madeenah. We need such an understanding in discarding the polytheists' current attempts to destroy the Islamic rows and to shake its internal construction.