A Difference Regarding the Spoils of War - I

A Difference Regarding the Spoils of War - I
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It was narrated on the authority of ‘Ubaadah bin As-Saamit, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said,

We set out with the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) and I witnessed the Battle of Badr with him. The two armies faced each other and Allah The Almighty caused the enemies to be defeated. A group [of Muslims] pursued them, defeating and killing them [the enemies]. Another group of Muslims collected the spoils from the battlefield and a third group surrounded the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) so that the enemy could not harm him at all.
 
When night fell and people returned to each other, those who had collected the spoils said, “We collected and gathered them, so no one [besides us] should have a share in them.” Those who pursued the enemy said, “You are not more entitled to have them than us because we repelled the enemy and defeated them.” Those who surrounded the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) protecting him said, “We feared that some harm might befall him [the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )] and we were busy with [protecting] him.” Then, Allah The Almighty revealed the verses (what mean): {They ask you [O Muhammad] about the spoils of war. Say: “The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger.” So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger [Muhammad], if you are believers.} [Quran 8:1] Hence, the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) distributed them rapidly among the Muslims. [Ahmad]
 
In another narration, when ‘Ubaadah bin As-Saamit, may Allah be pleased with him, was asked about the verses of the chapter of Al-Anfaal (The Spoils of War), he said, “They were revealed concerning us, the Muslims who attended the Battle of Badr, when we differed regarding the distribution of the spoils and behaved badly regarding them. Consequently, Allah The Almighty took them away from our hands and entrusted them to the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) who distributed them equally among us.” [Ahmad]
 
Allah The Almighty immortalized the Battle of Badr in the Chapter of Al-Anfaal. It dealt with the details of its incidents, causes and results. The noble verses deal with treating the human soul and nurturing it according to the meanings of profound faith and subtle formation. The Chapter of Al-Anfaal starts off by clarifying the ruling of spoils of war, stating that they are for Allah The Almighty and His Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ). Allah The Almighty is the Owner of everything and His Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) is His vicegerent on earth. Then, Allah The Almighty orders the believers with three matters: piety, reconciling matters of difference and obeying Allah The Almighty and His Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ).
 
These are very important orders in the theme of Jihaad. If Jihaad is not based on piety, then it is not considered Jihaad. Jihaad requires the unity of the Muslim rows and consequently needs the reconciling of all matters of difference. Discipline is the basis of Jihaad; then, Allah The Almighty points out that obeying Allah The Almighty and His Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) is the sign of faith.
 
Following these verses, Allah The Almighty specifies the attributes of true believers. This description and specification is significant in the theme of Jihaad for it is founded on true faith. Allah The Almighty specifies the attributes of the believers saying that they are those whose hearts tremble when the Name of Allah is mentioned and whose faith increases when the verses of Allah The Almighty are recited.
 
A third attribute is them relying on Allah The Almighty, meaning, they do not seek the help of anyone other than Him and do not resort to anyone seeking the fulfillment of their needs other than Him. They believe that what Allah The Almighty wants takes place and what He does not want cannot and will not take place. They believe that Allah alone can do whatever He wants with His creation and that there is no adjuster of His decision and He is swift in account.
 
A fourth attribute of theirs is performing the prayers at their due time and perfecting their ablutions, Rukoo‘ (bowing) and Sujood (prostration). This can be attained through performing ablution perfectly, perfecting Sujood and Rukoo‘, reciting the Quran in their prayers, saying Tashahhud (when seated in prayer) and sending blesses on the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ).
 
Their fifth attribute is spending from the provision granted by Allah The Almighty. This includes paying Zakah (obligatory charity) and all the rights of people, whether they are obligatory or otherwise. All creatures are slaves of Allah, and the dearest to Allah The Almighty is the most beneficial to them.
 
After mentioning these attributes, Allah The Almighty points out that these people who enjoy these attributes are the true believers, and that they will have degrees and ranks in Paradise, and that Allah will forgive their sins and reward them for their good deeds.
 
At this point the introduction of the chapter comes to an end having motivated people to resolve to do the prerequisites of Jihaad and eliminating all the means of defeat, such as differing over what to do with the spoils or anything else. It called the Muslims to obey Allah The Almighty and elevate their souls to the higher degrees of faith. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {They ask you [O Muhammad] about the spoils of war. Say: “The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger.” So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger [Muhammad], if you are believers. The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Lord they rely - The ones who establish prayer, and from what We have provided them, they spend. Those are the believers, truly. For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision.} [Quran 8:1-4]
 
Muhammad Al-Ameen Al-Misri stated that
 
These verses did not specifically mention anything about the behavior of the believers during the Battle of Badr. However, they implied severe reprimand that drove the believers to return to the right path and be modest before their Lord.
 
There are points that the verses shed light on, clarifying the points of weakness through describing what is in the souls in an excellent way that allows the eyes to imagine the movements and emotions. This leads to alerting the conscience of the believer to feel the distance between him and between the degrees of faith that he yearns for. These verses are considered a nurturing from Allah The Almighty. Anyone who has a fine literary sense notices the excellent style of the indirect reprimand through describing what were in the souls in a way that makes the common person believe that this is an improper act to be done by a true believer. Hence, the verses presented the sublime characteristics of faith and its noble merits, which delineate the wide gap between the believers and any bad behavior. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Lord they rely - The ones who establish prayer, and from what We have provided them, they spend. Those are the believers, truly. For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision.} [Quran 8:2-4]
 
(To be continued)

A Difference Regarding the Spoils of War - II

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