The Prophet Marries Zaynab bint Jahsh - II

The Prophet Marries Zaynab bint Jahsh - II
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(Continued)

Fourth: The Wisdom behind the marriage of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) to Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her
 
Adoption was a deep-seated tradition that was not easy to overcome and nor was it easy to eliminate its bad consequences. It was effective during the early days of Islam in Makkah and at the beginning of the emigration to Madeenah. It was by Divine will that verses were revealed to negate that adopted sons are real sons to the fathers they were named after. Such claims by the adopting fathers in no way changed the reality, as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Allah has not made for a man two hearts in his interior. And He has not made your wives whom you declare unlawful your mothers. And He has not made your adopted sons your [true] sons. That is [merely] your saying by your mouths, but Allah says the truth, and He guides to the [right] way.} [Quran 33:4]
 
Then, Allah The Almighty ordered naming adopted children after their real fathers in order to maintain justice and righteousness in (what means): {Call them by [the names of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers - then they are [still] your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you. And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.} [Quran 33:5]
 
It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, that, “Zayd bin Haarithah, may Allah be pleased with him was the freed slave of the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ). The only name we used to call him by was Zayd bin Muhammad until the Quran was revealed [regarding it].” [Al-Bukhari]
 
Allah The Almighty did not make the adopting fathers’ unawareness of the children’s real fathers a justification to continue adopting them. He forbade adoption in such a case and told the adopting fathers that the children are their brothers and freed slaves. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Call them by [the names of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers - then they are [still] your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you. And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.} [Quran 33:5] This means that if one does not know their real fathers, then the children are no more than his brothers in religion and his freed slaves, to compensate them for their missed parentage. Consequently, the child would be called the freed slave of so and so, or the freed slave of the family of so and so.
 
Such brotherhood in religion is of great importance, as it is established even for those whose fathers are known. This is why the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said to Zayd bin Haarithah, may Allah be pleased with him: “You are our brother and freed slave.” [Al-Bukhari] This means that he was our brother in Islam and our brother as a freed slave (entrusted to us), as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.} [Quran 49:10]
 
Other texts discussed this matter from another aspect, that of the child himself, which is the decisive prohibition of calling oneself after other than one’s real father. It is narrated that the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “The one who claims descent from someone other than his [real] father, and the slave who attaches himself to someone other than his [real] master, are cursed by Allah, His angels, and the people. Allah will accept neither repentance nor ransom from such a person on the Day of Resurrection.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
The Sharee‘ah set an evident way for establishing parentage, which is the relationship with the woman through marriage or slavery. It also revoked the pre-Islamic practice of claiming parentage of illegitimate children resulting from adultery. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was reported to have said: “The child is attributed to the one on whose bed it is born, and the adulterer deserves the stone [to be stoned to death].” [Al-Bukhari] This means that children who are the fruit of lawful wedlock or slavery are to be attributed to the father, and their paternity is not to be established when they are the result of adultery, which is to be punished by stoning to death. He forbade calling the children adopted sons and ordered calling them the sons of their fathers if they are known or as brothers or freed slaves in the religion otherwise. Allah The Almighty mentions the ruling of those who mistakenly or intentionally violate the Divine order; He Says (what means): {Call them by [the names of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers - then they are [still] your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you. And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.} [Quran 33:5]
 
There is no blame on those who mistakenly attribute children to other than their real fathers after exerting their best effort to discover the identity of their real fathers, or those who forgetfully attribute children to other than their fathers because they are accustomed to calling them by their other names. However, those who intentionally attribute children to other than their real fathers, while knowing that this is prohibited, are sinful.
 
As adoption was a deep-rooted tradition that has assumed different dimensions over the time, the marriage of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) to Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, revoked it in theory and practice.
 
The rationale behind the marriage of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) to Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, is evident, as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {In order that there not be upon the believers any discomfort concerning the wives of their adopted sons when they no longer have need of them. And ever is the command of Allah accomplished.} [Quran 33:37]
 
The advocates of disbelief, falsehood and ignorance adhere to fabricated narrations, the essence of which is that the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was in love with Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, after she had married Zayd bin Haarithah, may Allah be pleased with him, and when the latter came to know this, he wanted to divorce her so that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) could marry her. This story is utterly false, and Imaam Ibn Al-‘Arabi  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him strongly rejected it, saying
 
Claiming that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was in love with Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, when he saw her is false as she was available for him [had he wanted] all the time and in every place, and Hijab was not yet ordained. How is it that they grew up together and he saw her every hour and did not fall in love with her except after she married? Far be it that his pure heart would get involved in such a corrupt relationship, noting that Allah The Almighty ordered Him, Saying (what means): {And do not extend your eyes toward that by which We have given enjoyment to [some] categories of them, [its being but] the splendor of worldly life by which We test them.} [Quran 20:131] Given that women are tempting, divorcees are less desirable and married women even less. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {While you concealed within yourself that which Allah is to disclose.} [Quran 33:37] This means that the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) concealed his intention to marry Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, not his love for her as claimed by the advocates of falsehood. If it was something else that he concealed, Allah would have exposed it.
The Sharee‘ah wanted to revoke the system of adoption and all its consequences. It also aimed to confirm revocation by the practice of the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) who is to be taken as a role model in applying new revoking rulings, as he married Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, in compliance with the order of Allah The Almighty, the All-Wise.

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) Marries Zaynab bint Jahsh, May Allah be Pleased with Her - I

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