The Awareness of the Messenger of Allah in Dealing with the Souls - I

The Awareness of the Messenger of Allah in Dealing with the Souls - I
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Such awareness was clear in some incidents in this battle; some of which were:

A-   No return to idolatry
Some people, who had newly reverted to Islam, set out with the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), to the Battle of Hunayn. Some tribes in the pre-Islamic era had a great green tree called Thaat Anwaat which they used to visit every year, hang their arms on it, slaughter animals before it and stay around it for a day. While they were moving with the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, they saw this tree and thus longed for the deserted feasts of the pre-Islamic era. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, allow us to have a Thaat Anwaat just as those people have a Thaat Anwaat.”He replied:“Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest], by the One in whose Hands the soul of Muhammad is, you have uttered something like what the people of Moosa [Moses] uttered to him:{“O Moosa, make for us a god just as they have gods. He said,” Indeed, you are a people behaving ignorantly.}[Quran 7:138] You will follow the practices of those who preceded you from the People of the Book.” [At-Tirmithi]
 
This indicates that they had an unclear concept of pure monotheism in spite of their embracing Islam. However, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), clarified the meanings of Shirk (polytheism) that were implied in their request. He warned them against this but did not punish or chide them because he knew that they had only reverted to Islam recently. He allowed them to participate in Jihaad because it is not a condition for the one who sets out for Jihaad to have purified his belief completely from the impurities of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance). Rather, Jihaad is a righteous deed whose doer is rewarded even if he is negligent in other religious matters. Jihaad is a school for upbringing and education where the Mujaahidoon (holy warriors) learn many beliefs, rulings, and morals because it includes traveling and meeting many people, and this is a great chance to exchange ideas and discuss.
 
B- Taking pride and comfort in large numbers prevents the victory of Allah The Almighty
 
Taking pride in the large numbers of the Muslim army at the beginning of the battle delayed victory. Allah The Almighty refers to this Saying (what means): {Allah has already given you victory in many regions and [even] on the Day of Hunayn, when your great number pleased you, but it did not avail you at all, and the earth was confining for you with its vastness; then you turned back, fleeing.}[Quran 9:25]
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), drew our attention to this when he clarified that there is no power and no strength except in Allah The Almighty when he said:“Allahumma bika ahool wa bika asool wa bika uqaatil [O Allah, with Your help I get strength, and with Your help I pounce upon the enemy and defeat him, and with Your help I fight].” [Ahmad]
 
In this way, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would monitor the Muslims and correct their mistakes that were related to conception and behavior, even in the most dangerous conditions while facing his arrogant enemies.
 
In spite of the Muslims’ defeat in the first round of the Battle of Hunayn as they were overtaken by what they did not expect, the Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), did not scold any of those who fled, leaving him. When some Muslims asked him to kill these people who had newly embraced Islam after the conquest of Makkah because they fled, he did not agree.
 
C- Spoils of war are a means for bringing hearts together
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), wanted to win the hearts of those who were freed on the Day of the Conquest of Makkah and the Bedouins by the spoils of war because they had only embraced Islam recently. Hence, he gave the leaders of the Quraysh, the Ghatafaan and the Tameem huge shares of the spoils. The share of each of them was one hundred camels. Some of those who were given huge shares were Abu Sufyaan bin Harb, Suhayl bin ‘Amr, Hakeem bin Hizaam, Safwaan bin Umayyah, ‘Uyaynah bin Hisn Al-Fazaari, Al-Aqra‘ bin Haabis, Mu‘aawiyah bin Abi Sufyaan, Yazeed bin Abi Sufyaan and Qays bin ‘Adiyy. The purpose behind giving them such huge shares was to switch their hearts from loving the worldly life to loving Islam.
 
Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “People would revert to Islam initially seeking nothing but the worldly life; but once they reverted to Islam, it would become dearer to them than the world and everything in it.” [Muslim] Safwaan bin Umayyah, may Allah be pleased with him, expressed this when he said, “[By Allah,] the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) gave me what he gave me when he was the most hateful person to me. However, he continued giving to me until he became the dearest of all people to me.”[Muslim]
 
The young men among the Ansaar (helpers) were affected by this act, as they were human beings after all, and they kept talking about this with some dissatisfaction. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), took this objection into consideration and endeavored to ease the tension by showing them the wisdom behind distributing the spoils of war in that way. He addressed the Ansaar in a very logical, sentimental and emotional speech. Any Muslim who reads this speech throughout the ages cannot help but cry.
 
When Sa‘d, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), he said, “O Messenger of Allah, some people from among the Ansaar feel dissatisfied because of the way you have distributed the spoils of war. You distributed it among your people and gave great shares to some members of the Arabs while the people of the Ansaar did not take anything.”The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), asked him:“What is your opinion in this regard, O Sa‘d?”He replied, “O Messenger of Allah, I am but a man from my people.”The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), said to him:“Gather your people for me in this yard.”
 
Some of the Muhaajiroon (emigrants) came to attend and were allowed to join them, but others were not allowed. When they gathered, Sa‘d, may Allah be pleased with him, went to the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), and informed him of their gathering. The Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), went to them, praised Allah and glorified Him and then said: “O people of the Ansaar, what is this that has been conveyed to me about you and the grief that you find in your hearts? Did I not find you erring, and Allah guided you aright through me? And [in the state of] being destitute, and Allah made you free from want through me? And in a state of disunity, and Allah united you through me?”They (the Ansaar) said,“Allah and His Messenger are most benevolent.”He (again) said:“Why do you not answer me?”They said, “Allah and His Messenger are the most benevolent.”He said:
 
If you wish you could say, and you would be telling the truth and you will be believed: you came to us while you were belied, and we believed in you; while you were devastated, and we supported you; while you were expelled, and we provided you with a refuge, and while you were poor, and we assisted you. Do you grieve over the sake of worldly gain that I used to bring the hearts of those who have newly reverted to Islam together? I have entrusted you to your Islam. Do you not feel satisfied when people will go away with their goats and camels, but you will return to your places along with the Messenger of Allah?
 
By the One in whose Hands[1] my soul is, what you take is better than what they take. Had it not been for Hijrah [which made me one of the Muhaajiroon], I would have chosen to be a man from among the Ansaar. If the people were to tread a valley or a narrow path, I would tread the valley chosen by the Ansaar or the narrow path [trodden] by them. The Ansaar are inner garments[closer to me], and [other] people are outer garments. O Allah, bestow Your Mercy on the Ansaar, the children of the Ansaar, and the children of the children of the Ansaar.
 
The people then cried until their beards were soaked, and said, “We are satisfied with the Messenger of Allah as a share and gain.” Then, they all went away.
 
In another narration, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), said: “And you will soon find after me selfishness [in gaining material benefits]. So show patience until you meet me at the Hawdh [the Basin].” [Muslim]
 
It is worth noting that not all the Ansaar adopted this opinion; rather, it was said by the young men among them, and this is supported by a Hadeeth that is mentioned in the two Saheehs: It was narrated on the authority of Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said,
 
On the Day of Hunayn, some of the Ansaar said, “Allah gave His Messenger the riches of the Hawaazin as booty, the Messenger of Allah gave some men of the Quraysh one hundred camels.” Upon this they [the young men from the Ansaar] said, “May Allah forgive His Messenger. He gives all this to the people of the Quraysh, and he ignores us, when our swords still have the traces of their [the disbelievers’] blood.”
 
[Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, said,] The Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was informed of what they had said, and so he sent [someone] to the Ansaar and gathered them under a tent of leather. When they gathered, the Messenger  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) came to them and said:“What is this that I have heard about you?”The wise people of the Ansaar said, “O Messenger of Allah, the sagacious amongst us said nothing, but we have amongst us people who are immature; they said, “May Allah forgive the Messenger of Allah. He gives all this to the people of the Quraysh and he ignores us while our swords still have the traces of their [the disbelievers’] blood.”Upon this the Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), said:“I give to people who were quite recently in the state of disbelief so that I may thereby win their hearts.”[Muslim]
 
Ibn Al-Qayyim  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him used this incident as evidence that a ruler ought to attract the hearts of his enemies to ward off their harm. He stated that a ruler is a representative of the Muslims, and should act for their good and to establish the religion. If this - attracting and winning hearts - is necessary in order to defend Islam and to attract its enemy to be safe from their evil, it becomes permissible and, in fact, obligatory for him to do so. If there is evil in deprivation, the expected evil, in case this enemy is not attracted to Islam, would be even graver. The Sharee‘ah is based on warding off the graver of two evil things by enduring the lesser, and on achieving the most perfect benefit by missing the less perfect. Moreover, the worldly and the Hereafter-related benefits are based on these two principles.
 
Trying to win and attract the hearts of such a group aims at encouraging and enticing them at the outset, until faith mingles with their hearts and they taste its sweetness.
 
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Ghazaali  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him clarified this point through a material example when he said, “There are many people in this life who are driven to the truth by means of their stomachs, not their minds. Just as one may guide an animal to its way by means of a bundle of clover that it stretches its neck to eat from until it safely enters the pen; similarly, such types of people need various kinds of incentives until they feel familiar with faith and rejoice at it.”
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), gave the Ansaar an impressive image: people given glad tidings of having true faith compared to others who were given the glad tidings of having camels; people accompanied by the Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), compared to people who were accompanied by camels and sheep. These images awakened them and made them realize that they had erred. Consequently, they burst into tears and their tongues repeated words of satisfaction. They became assured by favor of the wise policy of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), in addressing the Ansaar.

[1]We believe in and affirm the Attributes of Allah that occur in the Quran and authentic Hadeeths of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), without distorting their wordings or meanings, nor denying them, nor asking how they are, nor drawing resemblance between Allah and any of His creation.

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