The Prophet Sending Missions to Teach People Islamic Principles - II

The Prophet Sending Missions to Teach People Islamic Principles - II
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(Continued)

 
A- The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), dispatched Mu‘aath bin Jabal and Abu Moosa Al-Ash‘ari, may Allah be pleased with them, to Yemen:
 
1-   The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), sent Mu‘aath bin ‎Jabal Al-Ansaari, may Allah be pleased with him, to Yemen. Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, was the most well-versed Companion of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), in what is lawful and what is unlawful. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), appointed him as a judge, educator, ruler, and collector of Zakah (obligatory charity).
 
Yemen was divided into two provinces at that time, and Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, was appointed as the ruler of the upper province. When Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, set out heading to Yemen, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), accompanied him to bid him farewell and advise him. Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, was riding while the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), was walking beside his mount. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), advised Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, saying:
 
You will come to a people who are from the People of the Book. When you reach them, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger. If they obey you, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. If they obey you, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakah to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor among them. If they obey you, then be cautious – do not take their best property [as Zakah], and fear the curse of an oppressed person as there is no barrier between his supplication and Allah. [Al-Bukhari]
 
In this Hadeeth, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), guides the callers to adopt a gradual approach, and to arrange things in accordance with their importance. Da‘wah (propagation) should primarily concentrate on establishing belief in Allah The Almighty and His Messenger,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), firmly in people’s hearts in such a way that enables it to dominate their thoughts and behavior. Then, the Da‘wah should concentrate on applying the practical pillars of Islam, which deepen this belief and develop it. Then comes the order to adhere to obligations and avoid prohibitions. This order makes people accept and comply with the Islamic teachings that may contradict people’s fancies and desires because, at such a stage, their hearts would be filled with faith and certainty.
 
This methodology was devised by the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), for Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, and those who wanted to follow the guidance of the honorable Companions. Da‘wah activists truly need to consider this prophetic methodology and understand and apply it so that they could avoid taking the wrong course. When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), finished advising Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, he said:“O Mu‘aath, you may not meet me in the next year, and you will probably pass by my mosque and grave next year.” On hearing that, Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, wept for fear of not seeing the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), again, and indeed, this is what happened, as Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, stayed in Yemen and only returned to Madeenah after the death of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ).
 
2-   The Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), appointed Abu Moosa Al-Ash‘ari, may Allah be pleased with him, as ruler of the other Yemenite province:
 
Like Mu‘aath, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with him, served as a judge, educator, ruler, and collector of Zakah. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), advised Mu’aath and Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with them, saying: “Facilitate things for people, and do not make things difficult for them; [be kind and lenient (both of you) with the people, and do not be hard to them]; and give people good tidings, and do not repulse them; conform with one another, and avoid disagreement.” [Al-Bukhari]
 
This is a prophetic methodology to which the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), guided Mu‘aath and Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with them. This methodology entails facilitating things for people and avoiding making things difficult for them. He also commanded them to give people good tidings, and to refrain from repulsing them.
 
B- Organizing administrative and financial affairs:
 
Organization is an integral part of this religion and a means of achieving its purposes. Organization was a characteristic of Islam from the first moment, as it is considered a constituent of the Islamic theoretical aspects and rituals. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would appoint someone to administer Madeenah during his absence. Whenever he conquered an area, the Messenger of Allah,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would appoint a ruler for it.
 
With regard to the delegations, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would appoint rulers for these delegations, send some of his Companions to teach them their religion, and then send someone to collect their Zakah. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would choose the rulers from the righteous, religious and well-versed people in addition to being nobles and influential personalities among their tribes. For example, ‘Attaab bin Usayd, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Makkah, ‘Uthmaan bin Abi Al-‘Aas, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of At-Taa‘if, and Mu‘aath and Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with them, were the rulers of Yemen.
 
In some cases, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), acknowledged the rulers and kings of the tribes which embraced Islam or accepted the Jizyah (non-Muslim poll tax) including Baathaan bin Saamaan, the son of Bahraam, whom the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), recognized as the ruler of Yemen after he embraced Islam. When Baathaan died, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), divided his responsibilities among a group of the Companions:
-      Shamir bin Baathaan was the ruler of San‘aa’
-      Abu Moosa Al-Ash‘ari, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Ma’rib
-      Ya‘la bin Umayyah, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Jund
-      ‘Aamir bin Shamir Al-Hamathaani, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Hamathaan
-      Khaalid bin Sa‘eed bin Al-‘Aas, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of the area between Najraan, Zama‘ and Zubayd.
-      ‘Amr bin Hizaam, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Najraan
-      Ziyaad bin Labeed Al-Bayaadhi, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of Hadhramawt
-      ‘Ukkaashah bin Thawr, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruler of As-Sakaasik
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), would audit his rulers, and he provided salaries for some of his rulers. For example:
-      The salary of ‘Attaab bin Usayd, may Allah be pleased with him, the ruler of Makkah, was one dirham a day. 
-      When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), appointed Qays bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, as a ruler of his people (Hamathaan), he gave him a piece of land to take its revenue as his salary.
 
The salaries of the rulers were not fixed; rather, they changed according to the changes in living conditions. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ), said: “Whoever we appoint as a ruler should have a house if he does not have one, should have a wife if he does not have one, and should have a mount if he does not have one.”  
These were the basic needs of a ruler at that time to make sure that he would not accept bribes. This legal rule was stated by Islam before being stated by modern positive laws, that is, “A gift that is given to a ruler is a clear bribe.”

The Prophet Sending Missions to Teach People Islamic Principles - I

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