Ruling concerning a discharge of blood five days before giving birth
Question: A woman had bleeding during pregnancy five days before giving birth, during the month of Ramadan. Should that blood be considered menstruation or Istihaadhah [prolonged flow of blood or menorrhagia], and what are the obligations upon her?
Response: If the matter is as mentioned, with her seeing blood five days before giving birth, and she did not have any signs that labour would occur soon, such as contractions, then in that case, the blood is neither menstruation nor post-partum bleeding. It is simply irregular blood. Therefore, she should not abandon the acts of worship but must continue fasting and praying. If, along with the blood, she has signs that her labour is near, such as contractions, then it is considered post-partum bleeding and therefore she should abandon praying and fasting due to it. Then, when she becomes pure after giving birth, she must make up the days of fasting but not the prayers.
The Standing Committee
The meaning of the word Quroo'
Question: Allah says in the Quran (what means): "Divorced women remaining in waiting [i.e., do not remarry] for three Quroo’…'" [Quran: 2: 228] What is the meaning here of the word Quroo'?
Response: Lexically, Quroo' can mean the time of purity and it can also mean the menses itself. However, the correct meaning in the verse is the menses as this is its most often usage by the Lawgiver (Allah Almighty) and is the opinion of the majority of the Companions .
Shaykh Ibn Jibreen
If the menses continue for more than their normal length
Question: If a woman normally has menses for seven or eight days but once or twice has them for a longer period, what is the ruling concerning that?
Response: If that woman normally has her menses for seven or eight days and then they become longer, becoming nine, ten or eleven days, then she must remain not praying until she becomes pure. This is because the Prophet did not set any specific limit for menstruation. Allah Says in the Quran (what means): "…They ask you about menstruation. Say: 'It is harmful...'" [Quran 2: 222]
As long as that blood is flowing, the woman remains in her state of menses until she becomes pure [i.e., the blood stops] and she then makes Ghusl (ritual bathing) and prays. If, in the following month, the blood comes for a shorter period of time, she makes Ghusl when the blood stops, even if it was not as long as the previous period. The important point is that as long as the woman is having menses and bleeding, she remains in that state and she should not pray, regardless of whether that amount of time is the same, longer or shorter than her previous menses. When the blood stops, she should pray.
Shaykh Ibn Al-'Uthaymeen
If a woman had a miscarriage in the third month of her pregnancy
Question: A year ago, I had a miscarriage in my third month of pregnancy. I stopped praying until the blood stopped. It was said to me that I should have prayed. What should I do now since I do not know the exact number of days I did not pray?
Response: What is well-known and accepted among the scholars is that if a woman has a miscarriage in the third month, she does not pray. This is because when the woman has such a miscarriage, the foetus has distinct human characteristics. Therefore, the blood that then flows is considered post-partum bleeding and the woman does not therefore pray. The scholars say that the foetus takes on the shape of a human after eighty-one days, which is less than three months. If you are certain that you had a miscarriage after three months, the blood that came was post-partum bleeding. However, if it was before eighty days, then the blood that came is irregular or abnormal blood and you should not have left the prayer due to it. So, the dear inquirer must see if the miscarriage was before eighty days, in which case she must make up the prayers she missed. If she does not know how many days she missed, she must estimate the matter and make up what she believes she has missed.
Shaykh Ibn Al-'Uthaymeen
The prayer of a menstruating woman
Question: While I was praying, my menses began. What should I do? Do I make up the prayers of the time of my menses?
Response: If the menses come after the beginning of a time for prayer, for example, if you receive your menses half an hour after high noon, then you must make up that prayer after your bleeding has ended since when its time began you were in a state of purity. This is based on Allah's statement (which means): "…Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times." [Quran: 4: 103]
Do not make up the prayers you missed while menstruating. This is based on the lengthy Hadeeth in which the Prophet said: "Is it not the case that when you menstruate, you do not (are not obliged to) pray or fast?" [Al-Bukhari]
There is a consensus among the scholars that the prayers missed during menstruation are not to be made up. However, if she becomes pure (i.e., the bleeding stops) and she has enough time to pray one Rak'ah (unit of prayer) or more of a prayer, then she must pray the prayer of that time in which she became pure. This is based on the Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah : "Whoever catches one Rak'ah of the 'Asr (afternoon) Prayer before sunset has caught the 'Asr Prayer." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
If she becomes pure during the time of 'Asr or before sunrise and there is enough time before sunset or sunrise to pray one Rak'ah, then she should pray 'Asr in the former case and Fajr (dawn) in the latter case.