The Breaking of the Fast for the Traveler and Pregnant and/or Breast-Feeding Woman
It was narrated on the authority of Anas ibn Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said that the Messenger of Allah said: “Indeed, Allah The Almighty has exempted the traveler (as was the case of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who was traveling in the incident related to this narration) from half the prayer, (i.e., to shorten the four-Rak’ah (unit) prayers to only two), and exempted the traveler, the pregnant woman and the suckling woman from fasting.’’ [Ibn Khuzaymah, Saheeh (Authentic)]
Related benefits and rulings
First: An illustration of the mercy of Allah The Almighty towards His slaves due to his removal of certain Sharee‘ah rulings from those who are unable to apply them, or who would be exposed to harm or difficulty by attempting to apply them.
Second: It is permissible for the traveler to break fasting and shorten his prayers as a concession from Allah The Almighty, and Allah loves that people apply His concessions just as he loves that they apply his commandments in general.
Third: Allah The Almighty has given the pregnant female the concession to break fasting in Ramadan as her fetus is nourished from her food, which means that harm or difficulty may befall her or her fetus due to fasting, and this is why Allah The Wise has made it permissible for her to break fasting.
Fourth: Allah The Almighty has given a concession to the suckling woman to break fasting. The suckling woman needs food constantly to be able to breast-feed her child. Fasting may cause harm or difficulty to her or to her baby, and this is why it has been made permissible for her to break fasting.
Fifth: Also included (in this concession) is anyone who needs to break fasting in order to do urgent tasks such as extinguish a fire, resist an attacker, or rescue anything that cannot be rescued except by breaking the fast. In such cases, he may break his fast.
Sixth: If the pregnant and suckling woman break fasting fearing for themselves or for themselves and their babies, they will only be required to make up for the missed days of fasting, and there is no difference among scholars regarding this, for they are in the same position as the patient who fears for himself of his health, and so they carry the same ruling. However, if they break fasting fearing for their babies only, then the matter is disputed among scholars. The sounder opinion, and Allah knows better, is that they are required only to make up for the missed days of fasting, for they are in the same position as the patient, and also because the Prophet deemed them as equal to the traveler in being exempted from fasting, and it is well-known that the traveler is required only to make up for the missed days of fasting and that no feeding of others is due upon him, and the same is applicable to the pregnant and breastfeeding woman.