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The Pledge of Ar-Ridhwaan II

Wednesday 03/06/2009

Allah the Exalted told His Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) that He was satisfied with his Companions because of them pledging allegiance to him to perform Jihaad with him and challenge Quraysh without fleeing from the battlefield, regardless of how many sacrifices this would entail. Abu Sinaan, may Allah be pleased with him, was the first to pledge allegiance to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). He came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allah, stretch out your hand so that I may pledge to you to that which you have in mind." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “And what is it that I have in mind?” The man said, "Victory or martyrdom." Then people followed him by saying to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) “'We pledge to you that which Abu Sinaan pledged.

Ibn Is-Haaq  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him the author of As-Seerah said, "All people pledged allegiance to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and none among the attendants hesitated except Al-Jadd ibn Qays from the tribe of Banu Salamah." Jaabir Ibn ‘Abdillaah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "By Allah, it is as if I am looking at him now sticking to his camel so that the people would not see him.'"
 
After the pledge had taken place ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, returned to the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and some of the Companions said to him, "O Abu ‘Abdullaah, it seems that you have satisfied your desire and circumambulated the Ka‘bah." He replied, "How could you think of me in this way? By Allah, had I stayed there for a year while the Prophet was staying in Al-Hudaybiyyah, I would never have circumambulated it before him." He added, "Quraysh invited me to circumambulate; however, I refused." The Muslims then said, "The Messenger of Allah is the most knowledgeable about Allah and the best of us to have good expectations (of others)”.
 
In addition to the verses of the Quran in this respect, it was proven in many authentic Hadeeths that all the people who attended the Pledge of Ar-Ridhwaan would enter Paradise. In a Hadeeth on the authority of Umm Bishr, may Allah be pleased with her, she mentioned that she heard the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) saying in the presence of Hafsah, may Allah be pleased with her: "None will enter Hell, Allah willing, from the People of the Tree, those who pledged allegiance under it." Hafsah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “O Messenger of Allah, yes they will!” He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) scolded her, so she said, “Allah Says (what means): {And there is none of you except he will come to it [i.e., Hell]} [Quran 19:71]” Thereupon, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees} [Quran 19:72]” [Muslim]
 
Also, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "None of those who pledged allegiance under the tree shall enter Hell." [Abu Daawood]
 
It was also reported in Al-Musannaf by Ibn Abi Shaybah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him that he said, "The first forerunners [in faith] refers to those who attended the Pledge of Ar-Ridhwaan, and Allah promised to admit them to Paradise; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And the first forerunners [in faith] among the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment} [Quran 9:100] 
 
In general, there are many lessons to be learnt from the events of this pledge, some of which are:
 
-The Muslims who pledged allegiance to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) at the Pledge of Ar-Ridhwaan had sound faith and sincere insight. They were true believers and allies of Allah, for if they had not been so, Allah The Almighty would not have specified them and said that He was satisfied with them. This is confirmed in the verse where Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility upon them.} [Quran 48:18] This clearly indicates that sincerity with Allah The Exalted is usually accompanied by His guidance, success and support. This can be observed in the verse where Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them.} [Quran 4: 35]
 
-This pledge was an introduction and a direct reason for the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah, which was a manifest victory that Allah bestowed on the Muslims and a great gain that they obtained. When the polytheists of Quraysh knew about the pledge and how persistent, strong, patient and firm the Muslims were, they realized that Islam represents the truth and this is why they dispatched a delegation to negotiate with the Muslims and reconcile with them.
 
-This incident also indicates how firm and strong the relations between the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his Companions were. They pledged to him to remain patient and steadfast in their determination to support him, not to flee and to face the situation with all the faith and sincerity it entailed. This was clear in their immediate response to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and their concern to fulfill the implications of their faith in Allah and in the message of His Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) because sincerity in faith is the way to win the satisfaction of Allah and obtain His support and victory. Referring to this, Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And indeed Allah will definitely give victory to whomever vindicates Him. Surely Allah is indeed Ever-Powerful, Ever-Mighty} [Quran 22: 4]
 
-One of the important indications of this pledge, which refers to all the aforesaid benefits and supports them, is the attitude of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, towards their Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). According to what was mentioned by the Seerah historians in this respect when ‘Urwah, a member of the Qurayshi delegation, returned to his people, he described what he had seen saying, "O people, By Allah I was sent before to kings, Kisra (Khosrau), Qaysar (Caesar), and An-Najaashi (Negus). By Allah, I have never seen people glorifying their king as the Companions of Muhammad glorify him. By Allah, when he expectorates, they rush to receive his phlegm in their hands and rub their faces and skin with it. If he gives an order, they hasten to obey him. If he performs ablution, they almost fight over the water he used. If he talks, they only talk in low voices in his presence. They do not even gaze at him out of reverence for him." It is clear from the description of ‘Urwah that having faith in the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) implies loving him and this love is not something abstract, rather it is tangible and can be witnessed in conduct, for it fills the heart of a Muslim and is reflected in his conduct until it matches the description that was given by ‘Urwah about the Companions of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ).
 
The following Hadeeth is firmly connected to this event and has countless ramifications for the Muslims: Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "On the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said to us: “You are the best people on earth.”” Jaabir, may Allah be pleased with him, who was blind by the time he had narrated this Hadeeth, added, "If I still had my sight, I would show you the place of the tree." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
 
However, this tree was later cut down and its exact location was forgotten. There is no doubt that this was better for the Muslims, otherwise people would have traveled to see it and would have taken it as a place of worship. They might have developed false beliefs about it and some of the ignorant might have taken it as their Qiblah (direction of prayer). However, Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And Allah is predominant over His affair, but most of the people do not know} [Quran 12: 21]

The Pledge of Ar-Ridhwaan – I

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