The Awareness of the Messenger of Allah in Dealing With the Souls - II
D- Patience with the roughness of the Bedouins
The Messenger of Allah, , showed great patience with the roughness of the Bedouins, their greed for money and their keenness on gaining wealth. He was an example of a mentor who was aware of their conditions, and understood that their environment and the nature of their life were behind their roughness, rudeness and selfishness. He would explain things to them, reassure them with regard to their interests, and deal with them according to the level of their understanding. He was very kind and merciful towards them and did not follow the approach that was adopted by the kings of his time, whose subjects would bow or prostrate before them; their subjects could not enter directly upon them and they had to use words of glorification when they addressed them, as a slave does with his Lord. On the contrary, the Prophet, , was like anyone else among them. They would talk to him and even rebuke him. He did not ever have a doorman. The Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, would be polite before him and address him in a low voice, and they loved him dearly. The rough Bedouins were scolded in the Quran for their impoliteness and roughness and their rude way of addressing the Prophet, . The following are a couple of incidents that indicate the good treatment of the Messenger of Allah, , towards the Bedouins:
1- The Bedouin who refused good tidings
In a Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Moosa, may Allah be pleased with him, he said,
I was with the Prophet when he was encamping in Al-Ji‘raanah [a place] between Makkah and Madeenah, and Bilaal was with him. A Bedouin came to the Prophet and said, “Will you not fulfill what you have promised me?” The Prophet said:“Rejoice [at what I will do for you].”The Bedouin said, “You have said to me ‘rejoice’ too often.” Then the Prophet turned to me [i.e. Abu Moosa] and Bilaal in an angry mood, and said:“The Bedouin has refused the good tidings, so you both accept them.”Bilaal and I said, “We accept them.” Then the Prophet asked for a bowl of water and washed his hands and face in it, and then took a mouthful of water and spat it out therein saying (to us):“Drink [some of] it, and pour [some] over your faces and chests and rejoice.” So we both took the drinking bowl and did as instructed. Umm Salamah called from behind a screen, “Keep some [of the water] for your mother.” So [we] left some of it for her. [Al-Bukhari]
2- The words of the Bedouin when he said, “the pleasure of Allah has not been sought in this distribution”
In a Hadeeth on the authority of ‘Abdullaah bin Mas‘ood, may Allah be pleased with him, he said,
On the Day of Hunayn, the Messenger of Allah preferred certain people in his distribution of the spoils. He gave Al-Aqra‘ bin Haabis one hundred camels, and the same to ‘Uyayynah, and gave people among the elite of Arabia, and preferred them over others. Upon this, a man said, “By Allah, neither justice has been done in this distribution [of spoils], nor has the Pleasure of Allah been sought in it.” I [the narrator] said, “By Allah, I will certainly inform the Messenger of Allah about this.” So I came to him and informed him about what the man had said. The color of his [the Prophet's ’s] face turned red like blood, and he said:“Who would do justice if Allah and His Messenger do not do justice?” He further said: “May Allah have mercy upon Moosa; he was harmed more than this, but he showed patience.” I [the narrator] said, “Never will I convey to him [the Prophet ] anything after this [unpleasant] narration.” [Muslim]
3- How the Prophet, , treated Hawaazin after they reverted to Islam
The tribe of Hawaazin embraced Islam and their delegation came to the Prophet, , while he was in Al-Ji‘iraanah. They said, “O Messenger of Allah, we are a clan of great origin and you know trial that has afflicted us, so bestow favors on us.”Their speaker, Zuhayr bin Surad, added,“O Messenger of Allah, the captives [of the Hawaazin] are your maternal aunts and your mothers by relation of suckling, who used to take care of you. Had we suckled someone from the sons of Abu Shamir or An-Nu‘maan bin Al-Munthir, and they then afflicted us with the same thing that you afflicted on us, we would have hoped that they would return our captives due to their kindness, but you are the best-reared child.” Then, he recited some impressive poetic verses, and this was the cause for setting them all free. Hence, his favors included them in the past and the present, in particular and in general.
When the Prophet, heard the speech of the delegation, he said to them:“Are your women and children dearer to you or your property?” They replied:“Do you want us to choose between our families and property? Our women and children are dearer to us.”He replied:“What belongs to me and to the children of ‘Abd Al-Muttalib is yours. Then, when I perform the Thuhr [Noon] prayer, stand up and say: ‘We seek intercession with the Messenger of Allah, to exhort the believers, and we seek intercession with the believers to exhort the Messenger of Allah to release the captives of our people who have fallen to their lot.’”
Therefore, when the Messenger of Allah, , performed the Thuhr prayer, they stood up and said what they had been told to say. The Messenger of Allah, , then, said:“As for what belongs to me and to the children of ‘Abd Al-Muttalib, you may consider them, from now on, yours again, and I will ask my folks to give back theirs.” Upon hearing this, the Muhaajiroon (emigrants) and the Ansaar (helpers) said, “What belongs to us belongs from now on, to the Messenger of Allah.”But Al-Aqra‘ bin Haabis said,“We will grant none of what belongs to me and to the Banu Tameem,” and ‘Uyaynah bin Hisn, said, “As for me and Banu Fazaarah, we say ‘No’.”‘Abbaas bin Mirdaas also refused and said no for the Banu Sulaym and himself. His people, however, said otherwise. “Whatever spoils belong to us belong from now on to the Messenger of Allah, as you have undermined my position,”said ‘Abbaas bin Mirdaas spontaneously.
The Messenger of Allah, , then said: “Those of you who do not want to give up their right will be granted six shares from our next booty for every person they give up now. So, return to these people their women and children.” In another narration, the Prophet, , spoke to the believers and said: “These brothers of yours have come to you as Muslims. I wanted to give them back their women and children. Whoever of you wants to do the same, let him do so. But those who prefer to keep what they have, let them return them back too, and they will be given as recompense from our next booty that Allah may grant us.”The people said,“We return [the captives] to them willingly as a favor, O Messenger of Allah!”The Prophet, , said:“I do not know who of you has given his consent and who has not, so go back and your leaders may present your decision to me.”The people then went away, and their leaders discussed the matter with them and then came to the Prophet, , to tell him that all of them had given their consent (to return the captives) willingly. [Al-Bukhari]
The Prophet, , was delighted with the tribe of the Hawaazin embracing Islam. He asked them about their leader, Maalik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri. He was told that he was in At-Taa’if with Thaqeef. The Prophet, , promised them to give him back his family and property, and to give him one hundred camels as a gift, if he came to him declaring his Islam. Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, came to the Prophet, , who honored him and appointed him a ruler over his people and some neighboring tribes. Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, was deeply affected by what the Prophet, , had done for him so he composed poetic verses praising him.
The policy of the Prophet, , with his enemies was very flexible. By virtue of this wise policy, he managed to bring the Hawaazin and its allies to the side of Islam, and made that powerful tribe a spearhead to demolish the powers of idolatry in the region under the leadership of Maalik bin ‘Awf, may Allah be pleased with him, who fought Thaqeef until they became confined. The leaders of Thaqeef thought about breaking this deadlock after Islam had encircled At-Taa’if from all sides. They could no longer move or trade.
Some of the leaders of Thaqeef were inclined towards embracing Islam, such as ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ood Ath-Thaqafi, may Allah be pleased with him, who hastened to catch up with the Prophet, , on his way to Madeenah after distributing the spoils of Hunayn and performing ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) from Al-Ji‘raanah. He met the Prophet, , declared his Islam, and then returned to At-Taa’if. He was a beloved leader amongst them; he called them to Islam and pronounced the Athaan (call to prayer) from above his house. Some of them shot him with arrows and injured him. He asked his people to bury him with the martyrs of the Muslims in the Siege of At-Taa’if.
One certainly feels amazed at the knowledge and expertise of the Prophet, , in dealing with the souls of men and his continuous efforts to enable the religion of Allah The Almighty. He managed to remove the features of idolatry as well as the idol worshipping houses of disbelief from Makkah and the cities around it. He issued regulatory matters to lands, which were added to the Islamic state. He appointed ‘Attaab bin Aseed, may Allah be pleased with him, as a governor over Makkah and appointed Mu‘aath bin Jabal as a teacher and mentor. He appointed Maalik bin ‘Awf a leader over Hawaazin. Then, he performed ‘Umrah and returned to Madeenah.
The Awareness of the Messenger of Allah in Dealing With the Souls - I