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Those Who Remained Behind with Valid Shareeah-Based Excuses Whom Allah The Almighty Excused - I

Sunday 05/09/2010

Returning from Tabook to Madeenah

The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), returned to Madeenah after staying in Tabook for twenty nights. On his way back to Madeenah, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), ordered that the mosque that was built by the hypocrites with the intention of causing harm should be demolished. When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), approached Madeenah, the boys of the city went to Thaniyyat Al-Wadaa’ to receive him. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), prayed two Rak‘ahs (units) in his mosque, and then sat with the people. The people who had remained behind then came to the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), to apologize to him.
 
These people were of four types: one group were those who had a valid excuse under the Sharee‘ah and Allah The Almighty excused them, the second group were those who did not have a valid excuse under the Sharee‘ah and Allah forgave them, the third were the hypocrites from among the Bedouins who lived around Madeenah, and the fourth group were the hypocrites of Madeenah itself.
 
Those who remained behind because of Sharee’ah-sanctioned excuses and Allah The Almighty excused them
 
Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {There is not upon the weak or upon the ill or upon those who do not find anything to spend any discomfort when they are sincere to Allah and His Messenger. There is not upon the doers of good any cause [for blame]. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. Nor [is there blame] upon those who, when they came to you that you might give them mounts, you said, “I can find nothing for you to ride upon.” They turned back while their eyes overflowed with tears out of grief that they could not find something to spend [for the Cause of Allah].}[Quran 9:91-92]
 
These verses show that those who remained behind in the Battle of Tabook with a valid excuse under the Sharee‘ah, would bear no sin because they had Sharee‘ah-approved excuses that prevented them from setting out with the Muslim army. The word “weak” means those who had chronic diseases, while others said that it meant the young ones or the insane and they were called weak because of the weakness of their minds. Al-Maawardi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him mentioned the two opinions. However, the sounder opinion is that the verse means those who are weak because of a chronic illness, blindness, old age or physical weakness. Those who were “ill”, had a certain disease that prevented them from fighting.
 
Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {or upon those who do not find anything to spend any discomfort}This means that those who could not afford to go to the battlefield would bear no sin {when they are sincere to Allah and His Messenger.}This means that they bore no sin if they acknowledged what is right, love its allies and hate its enemies.
 
{There is not upon the doers of good any cause [for blame].}At-Tabari  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “Allah The Almighty says that the one who was sincere to Allah and His Messenger and did not fight alongside the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) because of a valid excuse, would not be punished by Allah.”
 
{And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful}Allah The Almighty conceals the sins of the doers of good, forgives them and is merciful with them as He does not punish them for such sins.
 
Al-Qurtubi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “This verse indicates an Islamic principle; which is the exemption of the weak in terms of physical strength or wealth, from the obligations of the Sharee‘ah.”
 
{Nor [is there blame] upon those who, when they came to you that you might give them mounts, you said, “I can find nothing for you to ride upon.”}This means that there was no blame on the weak, the ill, and those who did not find money to spend, if they do not participate in Jihaad. The people referred to in this verse were mentioned separately as if forming a single category owing to their special status, despite the fact that they were included with those whom Allah The Almighty describes as {Who do not find anything to spend}. Their case was specific and came after a general case that had already been discussed in the preceding verse.Also, there was no blame on the poor believers who came to the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and asked him to give them mounts to set out with him on this long journey, but he told them that he could not find anything for them to ride upon. Thus, they left while shedding tears out of grief as they could not find the money that they could spend on Jihaad or the animals that they could ride on their journey to Tabook.

Those Who Remained Behind with Valid Sharee‘ah-Based Excuses Whom Allah The Almighty Excused - II

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