Belief in Al-Qadha’ Wal-Qadr (The Divine Decree and The Predestination) is one of the pillars of faith in Islam. None of the Muslim’s faith will complete unless he believes that whatever befalls him could not have missed him, and whatever misses him could not have befallen him. Everything is subject to the Will and Decree of Allah, as Allah Says in the Quran (what means): “Indeed, all things We created with predestination”. [Quran 54:49]
All the disasters and tribulations that happen on earth, or happen to the individual, or to his wealth or family, etc., were known to Allah before they happened, He has written them in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooth (the Preserved Tablet) as He Says (what means): “No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being — indeed that, for Allah, is easy.” [Quran 57:22]
No matter what disasters befall a person, it is good for him, whether he realizes that or not, because Allah does not decree anything but it is good, as He Says (what means): “Say, “Never will we be struck except by what Allah has decreed for us; He is our protector.” And upon Allah let the believers rely.” [Quran 9:51]
Every disaster happens by Allah's leave. If He had not willed it, it would not have happened, but Allah permitted it to happen and decreed it, and so it happened. Allah Says (what means): “No disaster strikes except by permission of Allah. And whoever believes in Allah — He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things.” [Quran 64:11]
Once a person knows that all calamities happen by the will and decree of Allah, then he has to believe and submit and be patient. The reward for patience is Paradise, as Allah Says (what means): “And will reward them for what they patiently endured [with] a garden [in Paradise] and silk [garments].” [Quran 76:12]
The position of patience in relation to this aspect of faith, in particular, is like that of the head in relation to the body. Patience is a noble attribute with good consequences. Those who are patient will have an unlimited reward, as Allah Says (what means): “Say, “O My servants who have believed, fear your Lord. For those who do good in this world is good and the earth of Allah is spacious. Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account [i.e. limit].” [Quran 39:10]
Another good outcome to perseverance through the Decree of Allah, is the believer (in particular) is rewarded in both good times and bad. Prophet Muhammad said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for all his affairs are good, and that is for no one except the believer. If something good happens to him, he expresses gratitude, and that is good for him, and if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience and that is good for him.” [Muslim]
Allah has taught us what we should say when calamity strikes, and has stated that those who are patient will have an honorable position with their Lord. Allah Says (what means): “… But give good tidings to the patient. Who, when disaster strikes them, say, “Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return.” [Quran 2:155-156]
The benefits of Belief in Divine Decree and Predestination:
The benefits of the Divine Decree and the Predestination can be highlighted through the following points:
1. Peace of mind: A Muslim who believes in Divine Decree and Predestination will have his mind at ease when he knows for certain that what befell him could not have missed him and what missed him could not have reached him.
2. Contentment: It doesn't make him grieve about anything because he doesn't say things that reflect discontent like “if I did such and such then such and such would have happened”. Also, he doesn't worry too much about the future because he believes that everything is already written. What he should worry about is his deeds and doing good.
3. Boost up the willpower and the determination: It gives him the will power and determination to go forward in the way of Allah. A Muslim doesn't fear anybody because he knows that no one has the power to afflict harm on him without it being decreed by Allah. The Prophet clarified this point to Ibn Abbas saying:
“…If the whole nation were to gather together to benefit you they would only benefit you with that which Allah had already written for you and if the whole nation were to gather to harm you they could only harm you with that which Allah had already written to harm you. The pen has been lifted and the ink has dried (a phrase meaning: everything has been decreed or settled)”. [At-Tirmithi]
4. Become modest and humble: It teaches the Muslim to be modest and humble. This is so because everything that a Muslim does is by the Will of Allah so if he succeeds he knows that Allah helped him in doing it; he doesn't succeed because he is intelligent or because he is rich or because he deserves it, and, likewise, a person isn't poor because he is stupid. This stops pride and arrogance from creeping to his heart because he knows that Allah can afflict him with harm and deprive him from the bounties he boasts about.
5. Total dependence upon Allah: A Muslim takes precautions, does as much as he can and then depends upon Allah because the Divine Decree does not stop him from taking precautions and utilizing worldly means.
The Prophet said: “Take precautions as everybody is guided to that which has been destined for him.” As for you should drink to quench your thirst. If something bad comes, it is because of our bad doings and if something good reaches us then it is from Allah's grace.
Almighty Allah Says (what means): “What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil, [O man], is from yourself.” [Quran 4:79]