Correct Answers to Questions about Takbeer of ‘Eed Prayer - I

Correct Answers to Questions about Takbeer of ‘Eed Prayer - I
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This is a series of brief answers to some questions about the extra Takbeers [the words 'Allahu-Akbar '(Allah is The Most Great)] of the ‘Eed prayer:

Question 1: 
When are Takbeers [Allahuakbar (Allah is The Most Great)] of the ‘Eed prayer said?
The answer:
There are two opinions regarding the timing of the Takbeers:
1-   After the Istiftaaah (opening) supplication: the worshipper starts making Takbeer after saying the opening supplication and before reciting Isti‘aathah [’A‘oothu billaah mina ash-shaytaan ar-rajeem (I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed devil)] and the Quran.
This is the opinion of the Hanafi scholars as stated in Haashiyat ibn ‘Aabideen, the Shaafi‘i scholars as stated in Al-Umm, and a narration of Imaam Ahmad as stated in Sharh Az-Zarkashi.
Those who advocate this opinion argued that the opening supplication marks the commencement of prayer; hence, it should be at the beginning of the prayer followed by the Takbeers, then Isti‘aathah and finally recitation of the Quran.
An-Nawawi  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him said:
Our opinion is that the additional Takbeers are said between the opening supplication and Isti’aathah. [Al-Majmoo‘]
He also said:
The additional Takbeers are made between the opening supplication and Isti’aathah in the first Rak‘ah, and before Isti’aathah in the second one [Al-Athkaar].
This opinion was chosen by Imaam As-Sarakhsi in Al-Mabsoot, Shaykh Ibn Baaz in Buloogh Al-Maraam, Shaykh Al-Fawzaan in Al-Mulakhkhas Al-Fiqhi, and the Permanent Committee for Fatwa.
2-   They are said before the opening supplication: the worshipper says the opening Takbeer (Takbeer Al-Ihraam)), then the additional Takbeers, followed by the opening supplication, then Isti’aathah and finally the recitation.
This is one of the narrations reported from Ahmad  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him.
They also said that the opening supplication is followed by Isti’aathah, then the additional Takbeers are said before the Quranic recitation.
3-   It is optional for the worshipper to make the additional Takbeers before or after the opening supplication:
This is also a third opinion of Ahmad  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him that was reported by Al-Mardaawi in Al-Insaaf.
The preponderant opinion:
This issue is optional and there is no harm in adopting either of the two opinions.
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Question 2:              
What is the number of Takbeers in the ‘Eed Prayer?
The answer:
Scholars of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) have three opinions regarding the number of Takbeers in the ‘Eed Prayer:
1-   Three Takbeers following the opening Takbeer and three Takbeers in the second Rak’ah following the recitation and before Rukoo‘ (bowing posture)
This is the opinion of the Hanafi scholars as stated in Haashiyat ibn ‘Aabideen, and a narration from Ahmad in Al-Insaaf.
Those who advocate this opinion cited a tradition narrated from Ibn Mas'ood  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him that he made four Takbeers in the ‘Eed Prayer, then recited the Quran and made one Takbeer followed by Rukoo‘. In the second Rak‘ah, he stood and then made four Takbeers. [‘Abdul-Razzaaq in Al-Musannaf (Ibn Hazm: Saheeh)].
They also cited a similar tradition narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him [‎’Abdul-Razzaaq in Al-Musannaf].
2-   Seven Takbeers including the opening Takbeer in the first Rak‘ah, and six Takbeers in the second Rak’ah including the Takbeer of standing (before recitation).
This is the opinion of Maalik  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him as stated in Al-Mudawwanah and Al-Kaafi, and the opinion of the Hanbali scholars, as stated in Al-Mughni.
Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him adopted this opinion in Majmoo‘ Al-Fataawa as did his disciple Ibn Al-Qayyim  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him in Zaad Al-Ma‘aad.
Those who advocate this opinion cited a tradition narrated from Ibn ‘Umar  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him that he witnessed the prayers of ‘Eed Al-Fitr and ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha with Abu Hurayrah  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him who made seven Takbeers in the first Rak’ah before the recitation, and six Takbeers in the second Rak’ah before the recitation. [Abu Daawood, At-Tirmithi and Ibn Maajah]
Maalik  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “This is the preponderant opinion.” [Al-Muwatta’ and Sharh Az-Zarqaawi ‘Ala Al-Muwatta’]
Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr said, “This is how the people of Al-Madeenah used to perform the ’Eed Prayers.” [Al-Istithkaar]
They also relied on the Hadeeth narrated on the authority of ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said that in the ‘Eed Prayers of Al-Fitr and Al-Adh-ha, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used to make seven Takbeers in the first Rak’ah and five Takbeers in the second Rak’ah other than the Rukoo’ Takbeer.
[Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah and Ad-Daaraqutni (Al-Albaani: Saheeh)]
Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn Baaz chose this opinion in Sharh Buloogh Al-Maraam, and Shaykh ‘Abdul-Muhsin Al-‘Abbaad.
3-   Seven Takbeers following the opening Takbeer and five Takbeers following the standing Takbeer.
This is the opinion of the Shaafi‘i scholars as stated in Al-Umm, and it was chosen by Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr in Al-Kaafi and Ibn Hazm in Al-Muhalla.
Those who advocate this opinion cited what was narrated ‎from Ibn ‘Umar  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him that he ‎witnessed the prayers of ‘Eed Al-Fitr and ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha with ‎Abu Hurayrah  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him and he ‎made seven Takbeers in the first Rak’ah before the recitation, ‎and six Takbeers in the second Rak’ah before the recitation.
However, they argued that the narrator counted neither the opening Takbeer nor the standing Takbeer.
The preponderant opinion:
After considering these opinions and their corresponding evidence, it appears that the honorable Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, held different opinions regarding the number of Takbeers, and therefore all opinions are permissible.
Imaam Ahmad  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “All opinions are permissible and valid.” [Al-Furoo‘ by Ibn Muflih]”
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him adopted the opinion of Imaam Ahmad  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him in Ash-Sharh Al-Mumti‘ ‘ala Zaad Al-Mustaqni‘.
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Question 3:              
Should one raise his hands with each additional Takbeer or not?
The answer:
There are two opinions regarding raising the hands with each additional Takbeer in the ‘Eed Prayers:
1-   One should raise his hands with each Takbeer:
This is the opinion of the Hanafi scholars as stated in Haashiyat Ibn ‘Aabideen, the Shaafi‘i scholars as stated in Fat-h Al-‘Azeez, the Hanbali scholars as stated in Al-Mughni, and the Maaliki scholars as stated in ‘Aqd Al-Jawaahir.
Those who advocate this opinion made an analogy between the Takbeers of the ‘Eed prayer and the opening Takbeer as well as the Rukoo‘ Takbeer, because they are all made in the standing posture.
They also depended on a tradition narrated from ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him stating that he used to raise his hands with each Takbeer in the Funeral prayer as well as in the ‘Eed prayers. [Al-Bayhaqi]
It was also narrated that Ibn ‘Umar  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him used to raise his hands with each Takbeer in the Funeral prayer.
The point here is that they made an analogy between the ‘Eed Takbeers and the Takbeers of the Funeral prayer. According to the principles of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), correct analogy (Qiyaas) means giving a sub-issue the ruling of a general issue due to similarity between them. When Sharee‘ah states the ruling of something which has a particular description, and then we have something else with the same description and characteristics, without having a specific ruling for it in Sharee‘ah, and there is no difference between the two things, then the latter should be given the ruling of the former. That is because the wise Sharee‘ah does not differentiate between things that have a similar description.
They also supported their opinion by citing what was narrated from ‘Ataa’  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him that he used to raise his hands with each Takbeer and that people imitated him. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah]
Scholars who adopted this opinion include the following:
-      Imaam An-Nawawi in Al-Majmoo'
-      Al-Joozajaani in Al-Asl
-      Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisi in Al-Mughni
-      Ibn Al-Qayyim in Zaad Al-Ma‘aad
-      At-Tahaawi in Mukhtasar Akhlaaq Al-Fuqahaa’
-      Sayyid Saabiq considered this as recommended in his book Fiqh As-Sunnah
-      Shaykh Ibn Baaz in his commentary on Fat-h Al-Baari
-      The Permanent Committee for Fatwa
-      Al-Fawzaan in Al-Mulakhkhas Al-Fiqhi
Moreover,
-      Anas ibn Maalik  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him used to raise his hands with each Takbeer [Ahkaam Al-‘Eedayn by Al-Firyaabi]
-      Yahya ibn Ma‘een said, “My opinion is that hands should be raised with each Takbeer.” [Su’alaat Ad-Doori]
-      Ibn Qudaamah  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “Generally, it is recommended for one to raise his hands.” [Al-Mughni]
-      Ibn Al-Qayyim  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him said, “Ibn ‘Umar, who was very keen on following the Sunnah, used to raise his hands with each Takbeer.” [Zaad Al-Ma‘aad]
-      Shaykh Ibn Baaz  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  him commented on Ibn ‘Umar’s Hadeeth saying, “This is sufficient evidence of the permissibility of raising the hands.” [Commentary on Fat-h Al-Baari]
He also said, “The evidence of the permissibility of raising the hands with each Takbeer is that ‘Umar  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him used to do so.” [Sharh Muntaqa Al-Akhbaar]
(To be continued)

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