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Fatwa Title

:

Prophet's mortgaged shield was debt settlement

Fatwa No.

:

343042

Fatwa Date

:

07/05/2017

Question:

On my last visit to your website, I have seen a strange hadith and want to know its legitimacy because that hadith states that the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, died whilst he was indebted to a Jew. Is that true? Then what about the hadith that says that even if a person died a martyr while owing something to others, they will get the punishment for that. The hadiths are:



‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, narrated, “The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam died while his shield was mortgaged with a Jew for 30 Saa’ of wheat (a Saa’ equals approximately one-and-a-half kilograms).” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]



The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said, “The soul of a believer remains hanging with his debt till it is paid off (on his behalf after his death).” [Ahmad, Abu Daawood, At-Tirmithi, An-Nasaa’i and Ibn Maajah]



The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) also said, ”Every sin of the martyr is forgiven except debt.” [Muslim]



Fatwa:

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger.



 



This hadeeth – we mean the hadeeth narrated by ‘Aa’ishah – is authentic without any doubt, and it is at the highest degree of authenticity as it was agreed upon by both Al-Bukhaari and Muslim.



Its content is also authentic: that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, died while his shield was mortgaged with a Jew in return for a debt.



This does not contradict the two ahaadeeth which you mentioned, as the scholars mentioned several answers to reconcile between them; the most apparent meaning is that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, left the shield as collateral so that the creditor (the Jew) would get back his right (would keep the shield as settlement for the debt).



Al-Maawardi mentioned this, and Ibn Hajar quoted it from him in Fat-h Al-Baari.



The threat that is mentioned in the two ahaadeeth is for someone who does not leave a fulfillment for his debt.



Allah knows best.


Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb


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