Once the messenger, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, arrived at Madeenah, he built a masjid and created a brotherhood between the Muhaajireen (emigrants) and the Ansaar (helpers). A treaty was signed between the Muslims and the Jews. What were the terms of this treaty?
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger.
The biography books mentioned that treaty and its terms and conditions. Here is a short summary of what Mubaarakpoori mentioned in his book The Sealed Nectar about it:
Terms of the treaty:
1. The Jews of Banu ‘Awf are a nation with the believers; the Jews shall maintain their religion and the Muslims theirs, their followers, and themselves; this also applies to the Jews other than Banu ‘Awf.
2. The Jews shall be responsible for their expenses and the Muslims for theirs.
3. Each party of this treaty shall come to the assistance of the other if attacked.
4. They should exchange advice and do acts of righteousness towards each other without any sin.
5. Each person shall bear his own sin (if he errs).
6. Support shall be given to the one suffering injustice.
7. The Jews shall contribute (to the cost of war) with the Believers so long as they are at war with a common enemy.
8. The valley of Yathrib (Madeenah) shall be sacred and inviolable for all that join this Treaty.
9. Any dispute among the parties of this treaty that is feared to cause evil shall be referred to Allah and to Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.
10. Quraysh shall not be granted protection, nor anyone who takes side with them.
11. Both parties must defend Yathrib if it is attacked... and each people shall defend their side.
12. This treaty shall not protect the unjust or the criminal.
Allah knows best.