Meaning of Mujmal Faith and Mufassal Faith
Fatwa No: 163539

Question

As-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh I have recently come across the terms 'iman-e-mufassil and iman-e-mujmal'. I am not familiar with these terms and could not find them in any of the familiar Islamic sites or islam-qa. I did find the exact spelling here http://e-quranlearning.com/iman.asp and again the phrases are unfamiliar. QUOTE Iman-e-Mufassil and Iman-e-Mujmal IMAN-E-MUJMAL (The Summary Declaration of Faith) I have faith in Allah as He is known by His Names and attributes and I accept all His commands. IMAN-E-MUFASSIL (The Detailed Declaration of Faith) I have faith in Allah and His Angels, His Books and His Messengers, and the Day of Judgement and that all good and evil and fate is from Almighty Allah and it is sure that there will be resurrection after death ** Please do you have any advise regarding the use of these terms? The actual meaning seems fine but it is just the combination of the phrases used as a declaration. It is a well known declaration to some apparently but why is it so difficult to find? JazakumAllahu khairan

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

These two terms are found in the books of scholars especially the books of ‘Aqeedah (Islamic Creed). So, it is permissible to use these two terms and there is no objection to the definitions if they give the same meaning as mentioned by the scholars.

What is meant by the Mujmal (summary) Faith is that a Muslim believes in the six pillars of Faith in general terms. For instance, he should believe in Allaah as his Lord Who runs the affairs of His slaves as One God and he should not associate anyone as a partner in worshipping Him. He should also believe that Allaah has the beautiful Names and Attributes which reached the utmost degree of Majesty and Perfection. So, every Muslim should acquire this portion of knowledge, and this is the Mujmal Faith. For more benefit, please refer to Fatwa 18348.

As regards the Mufassal Faith, then it is that a Muslim should know the details of those matters related to Ar-Ruboobiyyah (i.e. believing that Allaah is the only Creator, Cherisher, Sustainer), Al-Uloohiyyah (i.e. it is Allaah Alone Who is worthy of true worship) and Al-Asmaa’ wa as-Sifaat (i.e. to correctly believe in all the Names and Attributes that Allaah has described Himself with) and the evidence of each one of them, and the like. So, not every Muslim is obligated to learn this (portion of knowledge); rather, learning it is a communal obligation which requires believing in all the details that it contains. In other words, the Mujmal Faith is to believe in all what the Prophets conveyed in general and the Mufassal Faith, is to believe in the details of what they conveyed.

What we have mentioned about the Mujmal Faith and the Mufassal Faith in regard to the belief in Allaah also applies to the other pillars of Faith.

As regards the word declaration, then we do not know what you exactly mean by it here.

Allaah Knows best.

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