Using qiyaas (analogy) in matters of 'aqeedah
Fatwa No: 302134

Question

Assalaamu alaykum. Is Qiyaas (analogy) allowed in 'aqeedah (creed)?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger. 

Qiyaas is permissible in proving the general principles of faith, such as confirming the Lordship of Allaah as the Creator, the Owner, and the Disposer of everything, and that He is the One Who is worthy of worship.

Also, it is permissible to use qiyaas in confirming that Allaah is more worthy of some attributes of perfection; everything in which the characteristics of perfection of the creatures are confirmed, then the Creator is more worthy of them and more deserving of them.

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said in al-Majmoo, “Each of the Oneness of Lordship and Godship – albeit known by the innate binding fitrah (natural disposition) and by the Prophetic Divine sharee'ah – is also known by the binding necessities which are the rational standards of analogy.

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him in a statement clarifying the confusion of al-Jahamiyyah, also said:

Allaah has the highest examples, so it is not permissible to make analogy between Him and others as a resemblance analogy where the asl (original point) is equal to the far' (secondary point). Also, Allaah is not analogized with others in an analogy of comprehensiveness in which all parties are equal; that is because Allaah is not like others and is not equal to them in the first place … rather, for Allaah is the highest example, and this is making analogy of Who is worthy and Who deserves more than others. Everything in which the characteristics of perfection of the creature are confirmed to Him, then the Creator is more worthy of them [i.e. of these characteristics (attributes)] and more deserving of them, and He is more entitled to them than anyone else, as Allaah is more perfect than him, and because it is Allaah Who gave him that perfection, so the Creator is more worthy of them [the Attributes] and more deserving of them because He is more Perfect than him, as it is Allaah Who gave him that perfection.

The one who gives perfection to others is more worthy of being characterized by that perfection…

As regards using analogy to prove the details of the ‘aqeedah, then this is not permissible; because these details cannot be known except from the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said:

Knowing Allaah with His Attributes and Names in details cannot be known except from the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) either by him informing us about it, or by him informing us, clarifying to us, and pointing out the rational evidence; it is for this reason that they say, 'We do not describe Allaah except with what He described Himself with, or by what the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) described Him with.' Allaah says (what means): {Exalted is your Lord, the Lord of might, above what they describe. And peace upon the messengers. And praise to Allaah, the Lord of the worlds.}” [Quran 37:180-182]."

Allaah knows best.

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