Definition of the Torah and the Gospel
Fatwa No: 39572

  • Fatwa Date:11-4-2011 - Jumaadaa Al-Oula 8, 1432
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Question

What are the Torah and the Gospel?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

 

The Torah is the Book of Allaah that He sent down to Moosa (Moses)  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention who was the Messenger of Allaah to the Children of Israel. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allaah] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allaah, and they were witnesses thereto.} [Quran 5:44]

The Torah was sent to Moosa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention after the destruction of Pharaoh and his followers and the salvation of the Children of Israel. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And We gave Moosa (Moses) the Scripture, after We had destroyed the former generations, as enlightenment for the people and guidance and mercy that they might be reminded.} [Quran 28:43]

According to Qataadah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him the scripture in this verse, refers to the Torah. It was sent down exactly on the sixth of Ramadan as mentioned by the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in a Hadeeth on the authority of Waathilah ibn Al-Asqa'  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him. [Ahmad & Al-Bayhaqi]

We know that the Torah is great because Allaah The Almighty wrote it with His own  Hand. This is supported by a Hadeeth on the authority of Abu Hurayrah  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him where the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said that Aadam (Adam)  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention told Moosa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention that Allaah The Almighty wrote the Torah with His Hand, as a way of honoring Moosa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention. [Abu Daawood and Ibn Maajah]

As for the Gospel, it is also the Book of Allaah The Almighty that He sent down to ‘Eesa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention His messenger to the Children of Israel after Moosa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means):

•        {Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel.} [Quran 57:27]

•        {And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous.} [Quran 5:46]

The Gospel was sent down on the thirteenth of Ramadan as mentioned by the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in a Hadeeth on the authority of Waathilah ibn Al-Asqa'  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him. [Ahmad & Al-Bayhaqi]

It is true that believing in these two Books is one of the principles of faith. In other words, one's faith is not valid unless he believes that Allaah The Almighty sent down the Torah to Moosa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention and the Gospel on ‘Eesaa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention.

Nevertheless, Allaah The Almighty mentioned in the Quran that the Jews distorted these two Books: the Torah and the Gospel. They wrote down what they liked and claimed that these were the Words of Allaah The Almighty Who Says (what means):

•        {So woe to those who write the "scripture" with their own hands, then say, "This is from Allaah ," in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.} [Quran 2:79]

•        {And indeed, there is among them a party who alter the Scripture with their tongues so you may think it is from the Scripture, but it is not from the Scripture. And they say, "This is from Allaah," but it is not from Allaah. And they speak untruth about Allaah while they know.} [Quran 3:78]

In an authentic tradition, Ibn ‘Abbaas  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him mentioned that there were kings who came after ‘Eesaa  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention and changed the Torah and the Gospel. [An-Nasaa'i]

Further evidence on the distortion of the two scriptures is the differences and contradictions that exist between the versions of the Torah and the Gospel. This is apart from its foul accusations made against the prophets, whom they claim to have committed immoral acts. We have previously issued two Fatwas about this. Please refer to Fataawa 10326 and 29326.

Allaah Kows best.

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