Islam, Christianity and Judaism
Fatwa No: 83972

Question

What are the similarities and the differences between Islam, Christianity and Judaism?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

You should know that Islam is the religion that Allah has chosen for His Slaves and sent down to all Messengers.

Allah Says (what means): {Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.} [Quran 3:19]

Allah also Says (what means): {And whoever desires other than Islam as religion - never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.} [Quran 3:85]

In addition, Allah has informed us that Islam –in its general meaning –is the religion of all the Prophets: Noah, Ibraheem (Ibraham), Yaqoob, Yusuf, Moosa, etc;  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention.

There are many verses in the Quran to this effect, such the following:

Surah 2: verse 128-133.

Surah 22: verse 78.

Surah 10: verse 72, 84.

Surah 12: verse 101.

Islam here means worshipping Allah Alone and belief in all Divine revelations to Messengers.

Then, the Christians and Jews distorted the Divine revelations revealed to them and concealed the right that they knew. After that, they deviated from the religion of Islam (as explained above) and believed in trinity and paganism. Moreover, they spoke evil of Allah and His Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and Messengers as presented in their Bible. In addition, they disbelieved in the message of Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). In spite of the above-mentioned deviation of the Christians and Jews, they still have similarities with Islam.

Here is a brief explanation of such common ground:

1) Belief in the existence of the Creator of this world in contrast with atheists who believe only in nature.

2) Belief in the Day of Resurrection, punishment and reward. But, there is a difference between Muslims on the one hand, and the Christians and Jews concerning the nature of the God who will resurrect and hold people responsible on the other hand. They also differ concerning the victors who will enter Paradise. Muslims believe that Allah, who begets not, nor was he begotten, not Jesus the Christ, will hold people responsible for their deeds. We also believe that Muslims who believe in monotheism will be the victors; they are Muhammad's  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) followers as well as the followers of the true religions of the previous Prophets even though they did not come with Muhammad's  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) Mission.

3) Belief in Allah's Messengers and Prophets, Divine Books, God's laws clarifying what is lawful and what is forbidden.

As for the points of difference between Islam and Christianity and Judaism, there are many differences. Here are some examples:

1) Belief in Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his Message.

2) Belief in the Quran as a revocatory of previous laws.

3) Belief in Allah, The One without a partner, children or a wife.

In addition, whoever describes Allah with any quality or attribute of incompleteness such as poverty, inability, regret or weeping is not a believer.

4) Belief in all Messengers and Prophets including Jesus  as well as respecting them as Prophets and human beings without thinking of their divinity or speaking evil of them.

5) There are other differences related to matters of Faith and detailed rulings of Sharee’ah, such as forms of worships (prayer, fasting, Hajj …), marriage, divorce, sacrifice (slaughtering), etc.

Allah knows best.

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