Problem Studying about Evolution
Fatwa No: 86254

Question

I am a student in the last year of my secondary education. The problem I'm faced with is in my Biology class where we study Evolution and I feel like it can't be true. I have even begun to hate studying. Please help me.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

If what is meant by the question is studying Darwin 's theory of Evolution then we discussed this issue in detail in a previous answer about this theory, as follows:

Before discussing this theory and the Islamic view regarding it, we would like to say something about its author, Darwin.
Charles Robert Darwin was born in 1809 and died in 1882 according to the Simplified Arabic Encyclopedia. He was an English naturalist who studied medicine in Edinburgh (capital of Scotland) then specialized in natural history.

In his famous book "The Origin of Species" published in 1859, he laid the principles of his theory along with its proofs in a grotesque manner. He also issued the theory of the origins of the coral reefs, which was widely accepted. Among his other works are: 'The Origin of Man' and 'Selection in Relation to Sex' in 1871, and 'The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication' in 1867.

As to Darwin's theory, it was based on several things, such as:

- The claim that man was nothing, in origin, but an animal – just like other animals which are subject to evolution and development. And due to the similarity between man and the ape, then they could much probably share the same origin. He elaborated on the process of evolution and the way it took place through the following points:

- "Natural Selection": Here he claims that the weak living beings vanish gradually whereas those strong ones survive. This "law" came to be known as "Survival of the Fittest" under which the strong living beings continue to survive and transfer their genetic attributes to their offspring.

With the course of time, such genetic attributes are going to accumulate forming a new attribute in that kind of living beings. This is, for Darwin, the process of evolution through which the living beings – with their nascent characteristics – develop to more advanced beings. Thus this process of development continues leading to, at the end, the process of evolution.

This theory was vehemently opposed and refuted by many scientists. In the book entitled "The Collapse of Darwin's Theory", its author says: "The links are missing not only between man and the creatures inferior to him; rather, between classes of the living beings themselves. There are no links between the primitive unicellular animals and the multi-cellular animals, or between the Mollusks and the Arthropods, or between the invertebrates and the fish and other amphibians, or between the amphibians and the reptiles and birds, or between the reptiles and the human beings. I mentioned these creatures according to their chronological emergence during the geological ages."

Furthermore, so many naturalists refuted this theory. Dallas, for instance, said what could be summarized as follows:

"The process of evolution, by means of natural selection, cannot be applicable to man. We have to say that man was created all at once." Another natural scientist said: "It has been very clear to us from the reality of life that there is a huge difference between man and ape. We cannot judge that man descended from ape or any other animal, neither can we utter such absurdity."

Another scientist said, after conducting thorough studies on creatures, "Darwin's theory is a childish way of thinking and can, by no means, be accepted." T.H. Huxley, Darwin's own friend and follower said: "In light of what we have of data, it was never proved that a certain species of plants or animals ever evolved by way of natural or artificial selection.”

There are yet many other scientists who stood firmly against this controversial theory, whom we are not going to mention here for the sake of brevity.

Darwin's doctrine is a theory, after all, and not a fact or law. Some people may accept it; others may not. However, the factual reality of our life does not seem to give it any credibility. Had it been true, we would have seen many human beings and animals come to life by way of development and not only by way of reproduction.

The ability of adaptation some creations have, such as the chameleons which change their colors according to the milieu they are found in, is an inborn characteristic and not a required one. Such inborn attributes are abundant with some living beings and rare with others. In general, they are set within a limited range that they do not exceed.

Therefore, the characteristic of adaptability is an inner (inborn) one and not a developed one, or an acquired one from the environment as the advocates of this theory allege. If this had been the case, the environment would have imposed such characteristic on the stones, sand, and other inanimate objects.

As to Islam's position concerning this theory, it can be summed up in the following points:

1) Their claim that "nature" creates things haphazardly and that man has no creator is in blatant paradoxical to the Quran. Allah Says (what means):

• {Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs.} [Quran 39:62]

• {Indeed, all things We created with predestination.} [Quran 54:49] There are other verses in this regard.

2) Their allegation that they know how living creatures came into existence is in clear contradiction with the Saying of Allah (which means): {I did not make them witness to the creation of the heavens and the earth or to the creation of themselves.} [Quran 18:51]

Allah Almighty has told us, in the Quran, that He created man as an independent and complete creation. He informed His Angels about His intention to create man before he (man) was created. Allah Says (what means): {And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority."} [Quran 2:30]

Allah also informed us about the material from which He created man (dust): {O People, if you should be in doubt about the Resurrection, then [consider that] indeed, We created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed - that We may show you.} [Quran 22:5]

Abu Moosa al-Ash'ari  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him reported that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “Allah, Exalted be He, Created Adam from a handful (of dust) taking it from all corners of earth. Thus, the children of Adam came equal from the earth. Some (of children of Adam) were red, others white and black, others mixed. Some of them were obedient and others inflexible. Some are good and others are bad.” [At-Tirmithi and Abu Daawood]

The essential element of man's creation is water: Allah Says (what means): {Allah has created every [living] creature from water.} [Quran 24:45] Allah told us that He created man with His own Hands: Allah Says (what means): {[Allah] said, "O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My hands? Were you arrogant [then], or were you [already] among the haughty?"} [Quran 38:75]

Then Allah turned that clay into clay similar to that of pottery: Allah Says (what means): {He created man from clay like [that of] pottery.} [Quran 55:14]

The first man to be created was, therefore, Adam  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention who was not an incomplete creation and then developed to a complete one as the evolutionists claim. On the contrary, man was a complete creation then began to diminish in size. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “Allah Created Adam  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention and he was sixty cubits tall.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Hence the believers (Muslims) will enter Paradise with the very complete shape (stature) of Adam. The rest of the previous Hadeeth reads: “… so he who enters Paradise will enter it in the image of Adam. Then the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: “And the creation is in a state of diminishing (in size) till this day.

3) The evolutionists' claims of “Survival is for the Fittest" and that the catastrophes are the reason behind the decay of the weak creations are refuted by the actual fact that both the strong and weak creations will pass away. Allah Says (what means): {[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed - and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving.} [Quran 67:2]

Finally we would like to remind you of the sublime principle that decisively refutes this theory; namely the fact that Allah honoured Adam's children, which does not jibe with the claim that man's ancestor was an ape. Allah Says (what means): {We have certainly created man in the best of stature.} [Quran 95:4]

These are some of the points that have been tackled regarding Darwin's Theory, along with some answers to them. For more details, one may refer to the books composed in criticism to it, such as: "Belief in Allah" authored by ‘Umar Sulayman Al-Ashqar; “Islam in the Age of Science” authored by Fareed Wajdi, page 797; and “Al-Azhar Magazine”, volume 2, year 48, pages (1341-1348).

For more benefit, please refer to Fataawa 360076, 361846, 361168, 4755, and 83754.

Allah knows best.

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