How come ten modes of recitation of the Qur'an are commonly publicized today whereas only seven (those from 'Aasim, Naafi, Ibn Katheer, Ibn Aamir, Aboo Amr, Hamzah and Al-Kisaa'iyy) were taught by the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam?
All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. We ask Allaah to exalt his mention as well as that of his family and all his companions.
The ten ways of reciting the Quran are those of: Naafi', Ibn Katheer, Abu 'Amr, Ibn 'Aamir, 'Aasim, Hamzah, Al-Kisaa'ee, Abu Ja'far, Ya'qoob and Khalaf.
It is confirmed by evidence that all these ten ways of recitation of the Quran are narrated from the Prophet by Tawaatur, which means by a group of narrators from a group of narrators, generation after generation and so forth, and they are all trustworthy people and it is absolutely impossible for them to agree on a lie.
As regards the seven ways of recitation that the questioner mentioned, according to the consensus of the scholars they are also confirmed from the Prophet by Tawaatur. With regard to the three other remaining ways of recitation, according to the most correct opinion which is substantiated with evidence, they are confirmed by Tawaatur as well; this is the view of the scholars of Islamic jurisprudence and scholars of recitations of the Quran, like Ibn As-Subki, Ibn Al-Jazari, An-Nawayri and others. For instance Ibn Al-Jazari said: 'The ten ways of recitation are confirmed by Tawaatur in regard to the rules of recitation of the Quran and the ways of reciting it [according to these rules but these ways might differ from one another], whether they all agree in the way of recitation or differ.'
Moreover, Az-Zarqaani said: 'There is evidence that all the ten ways of recitation are confirmed by Tawaatur, and this is the view of the scholars of Islamic jurisprudence and scholars of recitations of the Quran.'
Therefore, it becomes evident that the Prophet taught these ten ways of recitation to the companions and they were transmitted to us generation after generation.
For more benefit, please refer to Fatwa 82191.Allaah Knows best.