If someone has to observe types of expiation that are prescribed for breaking the fast, abandoning the prayer, or mistaken murder, and he then dies before observing such obligations, would he be exempted and forgiven by merely seeking Allah's forgiveness or by repentance?
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger.
If someone is required to offer expiations prescribed for the delay of making up missed fasts and he dies before doing so even though he was able to do that during his lifetime, then the respective expiation must be paid from his estate. The amount of the expiation is estimated at 750 gm of a food type that is commonly consumed in his hometown for each day of fasting that he missed. The expiation must be given to the poor and the needy. If the person in hand leaves no estate behind, then the heirs do not have to feed needy people as expiation on his behalf, although they are recommended to do so.
If a person misses prayers and dies before making up for these prayers, then nobody can make up for them on his behalf.
If a person owes the expiation prescribed for mistaken murder and dies before offering it, then it must paid from his estate. Sixty poor people must be fed from his money, if he left any. This is because the option of freeing slaves is not available anymore, and fasting on his behalf is not allowed according to the preponderant view.
If a deceased person owes the expiation prescribed for oath-breaking, then this expiation should be taken from his estate, if he left any.
These are the legal consequences for whoever dies while owing different types of expiation, missed prayers, and whatever his heirs could be responsible for on his behalf in this life. If the person in hand was not negligent of observing such obligations in his life, or he was negligent but he turned to Allah in repentance, then he will not be blamed for it in the Hereafter. In fact, the question is not as clear as it should be.
Allah knows best.
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