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Fatwa Title

:

The Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, did not marry Maariyah Al-Qibtiyyah

Fatwa No.

:

332449

Fatwa Date

:

28/08/2016

Question:

Assalaamu alaikum. Maria Al-Qibtiyyah: The story written inside the books about the holy prophet’s wives – Maria’s story: Most of the books in my country mention that the Holy Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, really loved Maria because she was so beautiful that her beauty amazed the Holy Prophet. It says that the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, put her in Aaliyah's place in order to avoid her wives, especially ‘Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, being disturbed by her presence because the wives were very jealous given that the prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, always gave her attention and visited her during the day and at night. ‘Aa'ishah was not happy because the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, loved Maria and gave her more attention. The Holy Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, also brought Maria to Hafsah's house to be with her when Hafsah was not around and then Hafsah found out that the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and Maria were in her house together. The Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, also divorced Hafsah because of Maria (This story involving Hafsah and Maria has been recorded in the Quran in Soorah At-Tahrim). Anas bin Malik also said that in the following hadith: "The Holy Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, has a servant that he like the most and whom he is always with." (being with = making love to). The Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was so happy because he had a child with Maria while he did not have any with his wives, and Maria got a lot of love from the prophet. When she gave birth, the prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was very happy and was always at Maria's house. The prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, loved her very much. Maria's status was upgraded from a servant to his wife after she delivered the Prophet's baby. Even after his child died, the prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, would always be with her and console her and give her much love and attention. Because she was the only one after Khadijah, her status is higher than that of ‘Aa'ishah.



Fatwa:

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger.



The information mentioned in the question generally has a basis in the books of history and biographies, except for two statements:



The first: that Maariyah, may Allaah be pleased with her, became the wife of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, after giving birth to his son Ibraaheem. This is not true. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, did not marry Maariyah; rather, she was his slave girl (what his right hand possessed), and it was lawful for him to have sexual intercourse with her. Allaah, The Exalted, says (what means): {Not lawful to you (O Muhammad) are (any additional) women after (this), nor (is it) for you to exchange them for (other) wives, even if their beauty were to please you, except what your right hand possesses...} [Quran 33:52] Al-Baghawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, commented on the verse, saying, "Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, 'He (the Prophet) came to own Maariyah after (having married) those wives.'" [Tafseer Al-Baghawi]



This fact has been underlined by a group of Tafseer (exegesis) scholars. Siddeeq Hasan Khaan wrote, "Ibn ‘Abbaas said, 'When Ja‘far was martyred, the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, wanted to propose to his widow Asmaa' bint 'Umays, but Allaah revealed the prohibition in this regard {...except what your right hand possesses...} [Quran 33:52] to him. It means that only his slave girls were lawful for him (together with his current wives). The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, came to own Maariyah after he had married his wives...'" [Husn Al-Uswah bima Thabata min Allaah wa Rasoolihi fi An-Niswah, p. 202]



As far as we know, all the scholars whose opinion in this regard has been explored listed Maariyah among the slave girls owned by the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. None listed her among the wives of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.



As for the aspects of the superiority of Maariyah over his other slave girls, it is that she gave birth to his son Ibraaheem. Accordingly, she became the mother of his son (Umm Walad); it is impermissible for the master to sell his slave girl or offer her as a gift if she gave birth to his child, and she is to be freed after his death. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, "Any man whose slave girl bears him a child, she will be free after he dies." Al-Arnaa’oot, may Allaah have mercy upon him, commented on this hadeeth in his revision of Musnad Ahmad, saying:



"It has been cited by Ibn Maajah, Ad-Daaraqutni, Al-Haakim, and Al-Bayhaqi, on the authority of Husayn ibn ‘Abdullaah, from ‘Ikrimah, from ‘Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with them, that, 'The mother of Ibraaheem (meaning Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah) was mentioned to the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, so he said, 'Her son has freed her.' 'The same hadeeth was cited by Ibn Hazm in his book Al-Muhalla ... and he declared that it has an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Hajar declared the chain of narration of this hadeeth good in his book Ad-Diraayah, and Ibn Al-Qattaan did so as well, as stated in Nasb Ar-Raayah."



Ibn Hazm wrote in his book Maraatib Al-Ijmaa‘, p. 164, and Ibn Al-Qattaan Al-Faasi in his book Al-Iqnaa‘ fi Masaa'il Al-Ijmaa‘ 2/127:



"The scholars agreed that Ibraaheem, the son of the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was born free and that his mother Maariyah was Umm Walad (mother of her master's child) and accordingly was deemed unlawful for all men after his death and was freed. They also underlined that he, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, retained conjugal relations with her after the birth of Ibraaheem and that she was not sold or offered as a gift after him as she became free after his death..."



The second incorrect statement: that Maariyah was "the only one after Khadeejah so her status is higher than ‘Aa'ishah." This is untrue. Rather, ‘Aa'ishah was the most beloved wife to the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, after Khadeejah, may Allaah be pleased with her.



‘Amr ibn Al-‘Aas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, "The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, appointed me to lead the Army of Thaat-as-Salaasil. I came to him and said, 'Who is the most beloved person to you?' He said, ''Aa'ishah.' I asked, 'And among the men?' He said, 'Her father.' I said, 'Then who?' He said, 'Then, ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab.'" [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]



The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, "The superiority of ‘Aa'ishah to other women is like the superiority of Thareed (i.e. meat and bread dish) to all other foods." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]



‘Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said, "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as much as I did of Khadeejah although I never saw her, for I often heard him mentioning her ... He married me three years after her death, and his Lord ordered him or Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be upon him, to give her glad tidings that she would have a palace in Paradise made of Qasab (pipes of precious stones and pearls)." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]



‘Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, also said:



"The Muslims knew that the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, deeply loved ‘Aa'ishah; so if any of them had a gift for the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he would wait till the Messenger of Allaah had come to the house of ‘Aa'ishah and then send him the gift. The group of Umm Salamah discussed the matter together and decided that Umm Salamah should ask the Messenger of Allaah to tell the people to send their gifts to him in whatever wife's house he was. Umm Salamah spoke to the Messenger of Allaah of what they said, but he did not reply. Then they (those wives) asked Umm Salamah about it. She said, 'He did not say anything to me!' They asked her to talk to him again. She again talked to him when she met him on her day, but he gave no reply. When they asked her, she replied that he had given no reply. They said to her, 'Talk to him till he gives you a reply.' When it was her turn, she again talked to him. He then said to her, 'Do not hurt me regarding ‘Aa'ishah, for the divine revelation did not come to me when I was with any woman except ‘Aa'ishah.' On that, Umm Salamah said, 'I repent to Allaah from hurting you!' Then that group of women called Faatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and sent her to say to him, 'Your wives request that you treat them and the daughter of Abu Bakr on equal terms.' Faatimah conveyed the message to him. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, 'O my daughter! Do you not love whom I love?' She replied in the affirmative. He, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, 'Then love her (meaning ‘Aa'ishah)'..." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]



Please, refer to fataawa 222292 and 252427. You can also refer to fatwa 43062 about the biography of ‘Aa'ishah, and fatwa 86421 about the biography of Maariyah.



Allaah knows best.


Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb


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