What is the evidence from the Quran and Sunnah on stipulating the lapse of a full lunar year for Zakaah to be due?
All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and messenger.
Stipulating the lapse of a full lunar year in the Zakah of a type of wealth in which such a stipulation is necessary was reported in the Sunnah and the traditions of the Caliphs and Companions, but there is no evidence from the Quran on this subject.
Among the evidence which is mentioned in the Sunnah is the Hadeeth narrated on the authority of ‘Ali that the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: "If you have two-hundred dirhams and one full year has passed, then five dirhams are due on them. You do not have to pay anything (i.e. on gold) unless you have twenty dinars. If you have twenty dinars and one full year has passed, then half a dinar is due on them, and if the number increases then work it out on this basis. No Zakah is due on wealth until one full lunar year has passed". [Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and Abu Dawood: Hasan] Ad-Daaraqutni said that this Hadeeth is Saheeh as Mawqoof (i.e. goes back to ‘Ali, may Allaah be pleased with Him, and not to the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said that this Hadeeth's Isnaad has no faults and can stand as evidence by virtue of corroborating narrations.
Moreover, it is narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that he said, “Whoever earns wealth is not required to pay Zakah on it until one full lunar year has passed”. [At-Tirmithi] Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar seconded it being a Mawqoof tradition. Al-Bayhaqi said that the approved opinion regarding the stipulation of having a full lunar year lapse is based upon the authentic traditions narrated on the authority of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan, Ibn ‘Umar and other Companions . Moreover, Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said that the lapse of one full lunar year is a condition for Zakah to be due on gold, silver, cash and cattle, since the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used to send Zakah collectors on an annual basis and his Caliphs did the same based on what they learnt from his Sunnah.
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