Assalaamu alaykum. Thank you, Brother, for your assistance in answering this question. I live in Australia, where there is a governmental organisation called the Environment Protection Authority (EPA). The EPA has the authority to issue fines to drivers for littering. However, this is often done based on what other drivers have reported; the littering is not actually witnessed by the EPA themselves. As you could imagine, some drivers may make false reports, sometimes by mistake. So my question is the following: if a driver wrongfully reports someone for littering to the EPA and the EPA issues a fine to an innocent person, what is the ruling on that? The innocent person that has had a fine issued against them cannot afford to challenge this in court and is required to pay the fine. The fine is very high; it currently amounts to $622. Will the EPA be held to account on the Day of Judgment for fining an innocent person? Will the innocent person obtain his rights on the Day of Judgment regarding being forced to pay this fine unfairly? May Allah reward you.
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
It is one of the established principles in the Shariah that the oppressed gets his right from the oppressor in the Hereafter.
In the case which you mentioned, the person who was falsely accused of littering is wronged, and the injustice done to him is shared between the one who falsely accused him and the responsible authority whose system did not allow the oppressed to appeal and prove his innocence.
Allah knows best.
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