Doubts about predestination
Fatwa No: 81893

Question

Dear Brothers Asalamu Alaikum. Soembody told me that when Allah created all the souls, He gathered all of them and told them about their fate. If the fate is already decided, then why Allah will make us responsible for our wrong deeds? And why we might be punished for our wrong doings?

Answer

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.

Dear Brother, Know that al-Qadar (Divine Destiny) is Allah's secret in His Creation since nobody knows al-Qadar's essence except Allah, Subhanahu Wat'aalah. So, we are to believe in al-Qadar and to avoid disputing about it. In al-Mu'jam al-Kabir (a book of Hadith collected by al-Tabarani) Ibn Mas'oud ( may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him) narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (Blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: "If al-Qadar is mentioned, you should abstain from speaking (about it)." In Sahih (sound collection of Hadith) of Ibn Hibban and al-Mustadrak (a book of Hadith) that 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab reported that the Prophet Muhammad (Blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: "Do not argue with those who dispute about al-Qadar, nor open a conversation with them". The Creed of Ahlu-u-Sunnah concerning al-Qadar states that nothing took place in the past, can take place in the present or will take place in the future except by Allah's fate and Will. Allah, Subhanahu Wata 'alah, has endowed man with ability, will and volition, and He has shown him the two ways: that of good and that of evil through His revelations to His Messengers. So, whoever chooses the way of good, Allah will guide him and grant him success and the opposite is true. Allah Says (Interpretation of meaning): (And have shown him the two ways - of good and evil).[ 90:10]. Allah Says (Interpretation of meaning): (Whosoever desires (with his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward, and whosoever desires the reward of this world (with his deeds), We give him thereof (what is written for him), and he has no portion in the Hereafter).[42:20]. Allah also Says (Interpretation of meaning): (As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allâh and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And gives the lie to Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path for evil;). [92:5-10]. The above mentioned verses clarify that one has the volition. For example, no one can deny that man has a volition concerning material affairs such as livelihood: he spares no effort to gain more and more although he knows that his livelihood is predestined. Another example is that concerning one's seeking each and every remedy and means of safety to avoid harm. Thereupon, I reassure that a believer has to firmly believe in the Divine Destiny as well as to surrender to that regarding Allah's Qadar as a secret that nobody knows its essence, or will know it. In addition to that, know that Allah's Ultimate Wisdom concerning al-Qadar - be it good or bad - is surely wise and perfect.

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