Exceptions in Islam for the insane person
Fatwa No: 87300

Question

Thank you for Islam's view of insanity. What I want to know is what are the leniencies or exceptions an insane person has in Islam. Recently I read an article that if a person is insane during Ramadhaan he does not have to make up for his missed days of fasting. What are other exceptions for him?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. We ask Allaah to exalt his mention as well as that of his family and all his companions.

There is no disagreement among the scholars of Islam over the fact that the insane person is not held responsible for his/her acts as long as he/she has that psychological disorder.  Imaam Ahmad reported from 'Ali Ibn Abi Taalib  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The pen is prevented from writing the deeds of three people (i.e. they are excused by Allaah): a sleeping person till he wakes up, a child till he reaches puberty and an insane person till he can reason".  Now, when an insane person recovers, he is not asked to make up for any act of worship he missed while in that state.  But if he/she has some property on which is Zakah is due, then its Zakah should be paid as soon as it becomes due even if he has not yet recovered.

Now, if his/her guardian does not pay Zakah, then the person should pay it himself as soon as he recovers and Zakah is not dropped no matter how long it remains without being paid. 

In addition, the rights of people are not dropped and as soon as he recovers he should fulfill them.  The same rule applies to Hajj if he didn’t perform it before becoming insane.

Allaah Knows best.

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