Fatwa No : 457867
Rulers of the Qarmatian State Were Not a Caliphate
Fatwa Date : Shawwaal 9, 1443 / 10-5-2022
Salam Alaikum, I would like to know if the fatimids where indeed a caliphate? I know ismailis are not considered Muslims nowadays but I wonder if the fatimids where considered to be a caliphate? JAZAKALLAHU kheir
All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
The rulers of the Qarmatian state were known for their dissoluteness, disbelief, and injustice, and their (alleged) descent from Fatimah was a mere lie.
As for describing their reign as a caliphate and the fact that their rulers were given the title ‘Caliph’, it is acceptable in the linguistic sense of the word, for they succeeded other rulers (denoted by the Arabic word Khaleefah (caliph)), and that they succeeded one another.
As for the praiseworthy description of “the Caliphate that followed the guidance of Prophethood”, there is no doubt that it does not apply to their rule. Ibn Taymiyyah said in Majmoo' Al-Fatawa: “Banee ‘Ubayd Al-Qaddah were known for dissoluteness and hypocrisy, and they ruled over Egypt and Maghrib and claimed to be supporters of ‘Ali but were actually the descendants of disbelievers. Scholars have unanimously agreed that they were labeled as dissolute and hypocrites. The same goes for a group of the rulers of provinces from the Buyids and others ... The scholars also agreed that Mu‘awiyah was the best king who ruled over the Muslim state, for the reign of each of the four previous Caliphs (the rightly guided ones) was a Caliphate that followed the guidance of Prophethood, and he was the first of the kings. His rule was kingship and mercy, as stated in the Hadith that reads: “The beginning of this affair will be Prophethood and mercy, and then it will be Caliphate and mercy, and then it will be kingship and mercy, then there will be kingship and coercion, and then oppressive hereditary monarchy...”
The rule of the previous (rightly guided) Caliphs who ruled before Mu‘awiyah was a Caliphate that followed the guidance of Prophethood. It was authentically reported that the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The Caliphate that follows the guidance of Prophethood will last for thirty years, then there will be kingship.” [End of quote]
Allah knows best.
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