Assalaamu alaykum. Where the verses about the jinn and meteors only about the Prophet's, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, time, and not about the present?
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
The stoning of the devils with meteors (shooting stars) is not specific to the time of the Prophet . Rather, this preservation from the devils will continue until the Hour.
Tafseer Al-Qurtubi reads:
"If someone asked: if this shooting was for the sake of the prophecy (i.e. as proof of what the Prophet said), then why would it continue after his death?
The answer is: It continued with the continuation of the prophecy (as lasting proof of what he said); the Prophet informed us that fortunetelling (by reading the stars) is false, as he said, 'He is not one of us, he who divines (who foretells future events by reading the stars).' If the stars were not protected after his death, the jinn would return to hearing the revelation, and fortunetelling would return. This is not permissible after it was invalidated, and also because if the heaven ceased to be guarded with the termination of Prophethood and fortunetelling thus returned, it would cause some weak Muslims to have misconceptions, and it is feared that they would think that fortunetelling has returned to challenge what the Prophet said. So it is correct to say that wisdom entailed the continuity of guarding the heaven during the life of the Prophet and after his death."
For more benefit, please refer to fatwa 324712.
Allah knows best.
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